Managing Tourism in Nigeria: The Security Option

The World Tourism Conference which was held at Manila,Philippines in October 1980, considered the nature of tourism in all its aspects and the role tourism is bound to play in a dynamic and vastly changing world. The Manila Declaration on World Tourism argues that there are many constraint on the development of tourism, and groups of Nations should determine and study these constraints, and adopt measures aimed at removing their negative influence. It has been observed that violent crimes, civil unrest, kidnapping for ransom and terrorism to mention some, are enemies of tourism in Nigeria. Regrettably, the security warnings declared by Nation States and International Organizations against the danger posed by these constraints on tourism have been misconstrued as negative propaganda in Nigeria. This study seeks to identify some of these security hazards and attempt to proffer measures aimed at removing their negative influences. In the process, the empirical research methodology is applied and recommendations offered. The paper concludes that the very existence and development of tourism in Nigeria, depends entirely on the state of lasting peace. All stakeholders in the tourism industry must adopt all available means to counter these security risks so as to guarantee its sustainability in Nigeria. Key words: Managing; Tourism; Industry; Nigeria; Security, Option.






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Publication: Management Science and Engineering
Author: Adora, Charles U
Date published: January 1, 2010

1. INTRODUCTION

The Department of States warns US citizens of the danger of travel to Nigeria. Nigeria has limited tourist facilities and condition pose considerable risks to travelers. Violent crimes committed by ordinary criminals as well as by persons in police and military uniform can occur throughout the country. Kidnapping for ransom of person associated with the petroleum sector including US citizens, remains common in the Niger Delta area. Use of public transportation throughout Nigeria is dangerous and should be avoided... operational procedures may be inadequate to ensure passengers safety (cited in Okey O. Ovat 2003:33-44)

The epigrammatic opening underscores the place of security in the sustainability and progressive development of tourism industry in Nigeria. The extent to which the tourism industry contributes to socio-economic and political development of many countries in the world, particularly, Nigeria, is no longer in doubt. Tourism which is a very vital and popular global human activity has become a major sector of Nigerian economy. One fact that is quite glaring about tourism in Nigeria is that the sector has the potentials to generate significant foreign exchange earnings, employment and investment towards economic development (Ovat 33; Okpolo et al, 40-44). Currently, there have been growing concerns among nation states, international organizations, scholars and even tourists for the need to provide adequate security measures to safe guard the lives and properties of tourists and tourist destinations, globally, specifically in Nigeria. To this end, the security alarm raised by the Department of States, United State of America and the need to deploy all available means to protect travelers, specifically, tourists to Nigeria becomes particularly imperatives. However, it is painful to admit that the USA security warnings have been misconstrued by tourism analysts, scholars and critics in Nigeria as "Negative Propaganda". For example, in "Tourism and Economic Development in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation " Okey O. Ovat (43) avers that the USA warning to its citizens through a consular information sheet for Nigeria and as stated at the beginning of this paper is a "Negative Propaganda", as well as a serious constraint to the development of tourism in Nigeria. He adds: In view of the foregoing, if Nigeria is conscious and desirous of reaping the benefits of tourism, appropriate matching mechanisms should be developed to counter such negative propaganda (43).

This paper vehemently disagrees with Ovat's opinion, and serves as a rejoinder, principally designed to properly enlighten the public and those who are diplomatically biased against USA and professionally myopic about security threats to tourism development in Nigeria. The question, however remains; if Ovat's argument that USA security warning to its citizens on the danger of traveling to Nigeria is a negative propaganda against Nigeria is accepted, are the current civil unrests in Jos, Plateau State, kidnapping in the Niger Delta areas and other parts of the country, armed robbery and the advance fee fraud in Nigeria today also negative propaganda? It is my opinion that some Nigerians, specifically, businessmen, politicians and corporate bodies do not always adhere strictly to security warnings from other countries and even those from the Nigerian security agencies. The stakeholders of tourism Nigeria are no exception. This paper presupposes that instead of developing appropriate mechanism to counter genuine security alarm, we should direct our energies towards identifying and evaluating security hazards and appropriate strategies on how to reduce, eliminate, or cope with them. This paper, therefore, is desirous of identifying security hazards and generate remedies on how to cope with them, so as to guarantee the sustainability of tourism in Nigeria.

2. ASSUMPTIONS AT THE BASE OF THIS DISQUISITION

The following assumptions at the base of this paper:

Peace and tranquility are sin qua non to socio, political and economic activities globally. Tourism is a human activity and can only survive in a peaceful environment

Everyman has the right to leisure, freedom to travel and tourism, and is desirous of the safety of his life and properties. Therefore, there should be an enhancement of human security in our tourism sector to guarantee a regular turn over

Crime and national security is a challenge faced by the present administration in Nigeria. It is the security interest of all individuals, groups, and organizations which inhabit the territory of Nigeria to fight criminal activities and restore peace and order. The management of tourism industry must therefore join the security team to fight criminal activities to ensure lasting peace and guarantee tourism development

3. OVERVIEW OF NIGERIA'S TOURISM POTENTIALS

It is a truism that the availability of tourism product and services as well as tourism destinations stimulate tourism development in any country (Okpotor et al, 23-27; Holloway 4-7) in Nigeria the essential and optional components of tourism products are available in abundance. The essential components include transportation (conveying visitors), accommodation (providing shelter, security and comfort), and sustenance (food and beverages). On the other hand, the optional components are recreation facilities (swimming pools, tennis courts, indoor games; entertainment facilities (theatre, cinema shows); historical and science attractions, favourable climate and shopping facilities (Okpolo et al, 33-34).

All these are available in the 36 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. Similarly, Nigeria has a variety of tourism destinations that are spread across the country. In Nigeria, tourist destinations are either natural or man made and are managed to some appreciable level. Tourists destinations can be a place or a resort where tourists go and stay or it could be an area or country in where a visitor stays and travels (Hollo way,7). In Tourism in Nigeria, Okpotor et al (39) argues that Nigeria is blessed with attractive tourists products and destinations. They classified Nigeria's tourist resources into two main categories; namely: Natural Features and Cultural/Historic Attractions, and as found in all the 36 states of Nigeria, including FCT, Abuja (39-43). Below are the classifications:

A. North Eastern Circuit (Borno, Yobe, Bauchi, Taraba and Adamawa State)

a. Natural Attractions

i. Lake Chad Sanctuary

ii. Ky arimi Part

iii. LakeAlau

iv. Lake Njakira

v. Yankari National Park

vi. Wikki Warm Spring

vii. Lame Burra Game Reserve

viii. Manbila Plateau

ix. Hot Spring at Lámale

x. Kamale Peaks of Mubi

xi. "Three Sisters Rocks" at Sorg

xii. Jangani Mountain range of Ganye

xiii. Rolling Uplands of Muri

xiv. Zanda Hills

b. Cultural/Historic Attractions:

i. Kukas (Tombs of the Shehus)

ii. Maliki Dance of the Kanuris

iii. Rabeh Fort at Dikwa

iv. Birnin Ngazargamu

v. The Legend Snake at Guwo

vi. Collections of paintings and markings of the people of Gwozai

vii. Shami-Menwala Festival

viii. Bade Fishing Festival

ix. Shira Rock Painting

x. Kushi Festival

xi. Gere Masquerade

xii. Keffin Madaki Histroic Monument

xiii. Lamido Palace at Yola

xiv. Grave yard of Modibbo

xv. Calabash Carvings

xvi. Mat Weaving

xvii. Pottery and Metal Works

B. North Western Circuits: (Raduna, Katsina, Kano, Jigawa, Sokoto, Kebbi, and Niger including Abuja)

a. Natural Attractions:

i. The River Garden in Kaduna with its historic Lugard Bridge

ii. Kusugu Well in Daura

iii. Buguadu/Rock Castle Area game reserve

iv. Camping grounds at River Wudil

v. Wana Fabi and Kuruju Rocks

vi. Tigan Dam, Gurara falls

vii. Zuma Rock and Shiroro Gorge

b. Cultural/Historic Attractions

i. The Regimental Museum of Nigerian Army at Zaria City

ii. National Museum at Kaduna

iii. Lugard Hall at Kaduna

iv. Katsina City Walls

v. Gobarau Minaret in Katsina

vi. Yan Awaki Camel Market

vii. Groundnut Pyramids

viii. Histroic Building in Kano

ix. Koba Mata Dye Pits, Kano

x. Kano Central Mosque

xi. Dubar in Kano

xii. Makama Museum

xiii. Kanta Museum

xiv. Usman Dan Fodio Tomb

xv. Sultan's Palace

xvi. Argungu Fishing Festival

xvii. Ohota Festival

xviii. Abuja Pottery

xix. Bida glass and bead Works

xx. Hand Made glass beads and bangles

xxi. Embroidery

xxii. Dying etc

C. Middle Belt Circuit (Plateau, Benue, Eastern Area of Kogi, including Lokoja

a. Natural Attractions

i. Jos wildlife Sabari Park

ii. Shere Hills

iii. Assop Falls

iv. Wase Rock

v. Kara Falls

vi. Karang Volcanic Mountain

vii. Niger Benue Confluence Zone at Lokoja

b. Cultural/Historic Attractions

i. Jos Zoological Garden

ii. National Museum, Jos

iii. Museum of Traditional Nigerian Arhcitecture (MOTNA)

iv. BarkinLadi Golf Club

v. Ogani Fishing Festival

vi. Jos Cultural Centre

vii. Kwagh-hir Theatre

viii. Fishing Festivals at Katsina Ala

ix. Iron of Liberty Cenotaph, Lokoja

x. The First Primary School in Northern Nigerian at Lokoja

xi. Ajaokuta Steel Complex

D. South Western Circuit (Lagos, Oy o, Osun, Ondo, Kwara, Western Part of Kogi State)

a. Natural Attractions

i. Badagry Beach

ii. Bar Beach

iii. Tarkwa Bay

iv. Tin Can Island Park

v. Lekki Beach

vi. Erin Ijesha Water Falls

vii. Dcogosi Warm Spring

viii. Ebonmi Lake at Ipesi Akoko

ix. Ipole/Itoro Water falls

x. Borgu Game Reserve

xi. Kainji National Park (Game Reserve)

xii. Olumo Rock

xiii. Uren Bank Holiday Resort

b. Cultural/Historic Attraction

i. Tafewa Balewa Square

ii. National Museum, Onikan

iii. Badagry Slave Trade Chain

iv. Eyo Festival

v. Hojo Bar

vi. Zoological Garden at University of Ibadan

vii. Osun Oshogbo shrines

viii. Ife Museum of antiquites

ix. The Palace of various Obas

x. Owo Museum

xi. Holy Apsotles Community (Aiyetoro)

xii. Shrine of Brikisu Sungbo

xiii. Agemo and Egungun Masquerade festivals

xiv. Wreckage of Mungo Parks Boat at Jebba

xv. Old City walls of Benin

xvi. Bronze Casters' Studio in various parts of Benin City

E. South Eastern Circuit (AKwa Ibom, Anambra, Enugu, Imo, Abia, Bayelsa, Rivers, Cross River State and Delta State

a. Natural Attractions

i. The wonder tree at Ikot Ekpene

ii. Ogbusike Cave

iii. Agulu Lake

iv. Amaokpilla Lake

v. The Coal Mines at Enugu

vi. Agulu Nanka Erosion

vii. Range of Hills around Enugu and Nsukka

viii. Oguta Lake (Holiday Resort at Patani)

ix. Arochukwu Cave

x. River Niger Holiday resort at Patani

xi. Niger Bridge at Asaba

xii. Oil Towns of Sapele, Ughali and Warn

xiii. Obudu Cattle Ranch

xiv. Agbokin Water fall near Ikom

xv. Oil Museum Oloibiri

xvi. Oil Refinery at Alesa Eleme

xvii. Aliasse Beach

b. Cultural/Historic Attractions

i. Oron Museum

ii. The Mask Market at Ikot Ikpene

iii. Mmonwu festival

iv. Ofala Festivals in parts of the circuit

v. Mkpokiti Aerobatic Dance Troupe, Umunze

vi. Uzoiyi Cultural festival at Umuoji

vii. Wide Range of local crafts including pottery at Inyi, Achi and Awgbu

viii. Blacksmithing at Awka and Nkwerre

ix. Zoological Garden at Enugu

x. National War Museum at Umuahia

xi. The Gigantic Ikoro Drums in Bende

xii. Aba Central Market

xiii. National Museum of Colonial Histroy, Aba

xiv. Grave of Mary Slessor in Calabar

xv. King Jaja of Opobo's Grave, Monument and Palace

xvi. Isaac Boro Amusement park

xvii. Slave ports at Brass and Bonny

xviii. National Museum, Port Harcourt

xix. Amadioha Ozuzu Shrine etc.

4. THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM IN NIGERIA

The extent to which tourism contributes to the socio-economic and political development of any country is still a subject of debate. Arguably, tourism stimulates the exchange of educational, recreational and cultural values in Nigeria. As mass tourists travel to distant places, they bring with them their own value system and learn the ways of life of Nigerians. As visitors travel to Nigeria to stay, they seek to meet and understand the different cultures and background of the various ethnic groups. As they meet with their host, an exchange of educational and cultural ideas takes place. Hence, the travels help to widen their horizon and appreciate other people's culture. Tourism is a great economic force in Nigeria. Tourism analysts and scholars argue that tourism is a catalyst to economic development. It is a potential source of income generation especially, as foreign exchange. The receipts from international tourism are vulnerable sources of earnings for Nigeria (Okey 39; Okpolo 42). Explorers or visitors spending can generate further income for both private and public sectors through the income multipliers-effect. It encourages the financial flow of funds from developed and developing countries into Nigeria.

Another major benefit of tourism is it capacity to stimulate infrastructural development. Perhaps, the benefits from infrastructural development justified the primary reasons for implementing tourism programmes and activities in most states in Nigeria. Most state governors in Nigeria today, like the former Governor of Cross River State, Donald Duke, have undertaken the development of new infrastructures and the improvement of the existing infrastructures such as airports, roads, water supply, electricity, hotels and business village like Tinappa and the ranch resort (Obudu Cattle Ranch). Tourism stimulates employment creation in Nigeria (Okey 39, Okpolor et al 44). The tourism trade is a valuable source of employment, globally (Bhatia 459) In the case of Nigeria, the development of new infrastructures provides opportunity for job creation. Indeed, the tourism sector and its sub sector employ a large number of people, and provide a wide range of jobs ranging from the unskilled to the highly specialized. The construction of roads, airports or airport maintenance, water supply, electricity, construction and renovation of hotels and other accommodations units create jobs for thousands of workers, both skilled and unskilled, particularly in Cross River State, where Donald Duke's government undertook a silent revolution in tourism development.

Tourism is an important medium for promoting international goodwill and friendship between Nigeria and other nations of the world. Since tourism is a cultural phenomenon, promoting the varied cultures and life styles, its help to foster regional understanding, cooperation, social education among Nigerians and different regions of the world, especially in Africa.

Besides, there is a general agreement among tourist analysts and scholars that the mass flow of visitors or travelers generates negative social values, globally (Okey 38, Hollo way 327). In Nigeria, the effect of tourism is obvious as it seems to be promoting commercial sex (prostitution) and sex with minors, child labour. Tourism induces inflation, racism, and organized crime (Okpotor et al, 47). They further state:

Child labour constitutes a very serious menace in Nigeria urban areas. Many children are engaged as loaders, hawkers and barrow pushers for paltry sum of money. For instance, in Obudu Ranch Resort and Sukur Kingdom in particular, irrespective of the residence guides attached to them,. Children are always begging to run errands for visitors in return for a token amount of money (47)

In all, the cost and benefit of tourism development are obvious in Nigeria. If tourism trade is linked to the development of Nigeria and it very existence depends entirely on adequate peace and tranquility, then, we are right to study the constraints and adopt measure to counter them. In the light of this, we shall now focus our attention on identifying some of the security hazards that may impede tourism development so as to suggest measures aimed at removing or reducing their negative influences.

5. PLANNING AND FACILITATING SECURITY IN TOURISM IN NIGERIA

In the first part of this study, it was shown that tourism has come to stay and can constitute an important part in the economic development of Nigeria if properly managed. On the other hand, as we continue to experience the influx of large number of tourists, we are bound to suffer from social, economic and political inconveniences, specifically, security problems. Our concern for managing security in our tourism sector is spawned from the fact that war, politics, crime, and civil unrest can be the greatest enemy of tourism. War, crime and civil unrests are definitely detrimental to tourism (Bishwanath Ghosh 73). He posits.

The politics of Indian tourism. . . expansion of tourism has suffered from unrest such as wars with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971 and quarrels with Siri- Lanka over the later treatment of Tands of Indian descent. Violence in Delhi, Punjab and Assam and religious riots in Hyderabad have adversely affected domestic as well as international tourism... factors that interrupt air travel, make overland travels impossible or lead to the cancellation of multi-country tours of the region (73)

Perhaps, it is in the light of the potential benefits of tourism to any country, and the possibility of criminal threats that may impede tourism development that informed J. Christopher Hollo way's thesis on the business of tourism, which may be particularly applicable.

Any country in which tourism plays a prominent role in National income and employment can expect its government to produce policies and plans for the development of tourism. This will include generating guidelines and objectives for the growth and management of tourism, both in the short and the long term, and devising strategies designed to achieve these objectives (265)

The Cambridge Training and Development (CTAD) puts the reason for managing security at leisure and tourism events in the following perspective:

Safeguarding people's security at an event is just as important as safeguarding their health and safety. Organizers should plan the security of events carefully and anticipate any problems that might arise -theft, the risk of violence, damage to property, and so on., you will be investigating the potential security risk at a leisure and tourism event and describing the measures taken to reduce the risk (392)

In tune with CTAD's call and suggestions, this study would now consider the security hazards and proffer measures to cope with them in the tourism sector in Nigeria.

6. SECURITY HAZARDS IN NIGERIA

Crimes, violent acts and civil unrests that impede national security and socio-economic and political progress are in abundance in Nigeria. However, crime statistics is far from being a reliable index of crime in Nigeria. This is because many crimes occur in Nigeria but are not reported or are not known to the police or other security agencies. And so do not appear in the official crime statistics (Igbo 37). In Criminology and Criminal Justices, A.B. Dambazau (113-155) acknowledges the manifestation of crime in Nigeria. He argues that in addition to the conventional crimes of armed robbery, murder, assault and so on, Nigeria has been on the global crime map since 1980s. Kidnapping, drug trafficking, advance fee fraud (419), human trafficking, money laundering, have been particularly identified with Nigerian transnational criminal syndicates or networks (Dambazau, 113). He maintained that crime has been identified as the most potent threats to Nigerian National Security. It becomes a threat because it poses danger to the security of the nation. Crime is a threat to National security because its impact is felt on all aspects of human activity such as economic, food, health, environmental, personal, political and social. Crime is one of the major factors of underdevelopment. Dambazau further rant:

The reasons is not farfetched because of the way it lowers or discourages investment level, destroys human and social capital damages relationship between citizens and the state, and thus undermines democracy and the ability of the state to promote development (153)

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), out of the fifty nine countries evaluated, Nigeria is rated the riskiest country for business in the world. The report further shows that:

Nigeria is an insecure environment for commercial operations. Security risk arises at three levels. The first comes from raising violent crime, (from) simple armed robbery (to) carjacking and violent attacks. . . second, companies can be subjected to direct attack or blackmail. . . facilities can be vandalized and staff kidnapped. Third, incidence of inter-communal violence has risen... Nigeria's ill equipped policed force... has been ineffective in stemming the crime wave (cited in Dambazau 153)

Although crime statistics in Nigeria are rarely accurate and hard to find, Tables 1.1 and 1.2 respectively represent the data on crimes against persons and properties reported to the Nigerian Police between 1995 and 2003.

Besides conventional crimes, we experience frequent ethnic and ethno- religious conflicts or purely intra-tribal wars in Nigeria. It is painful to admit that since independence, Nigeria has witnessed several ethnic or ethno-religious conflicts that threatened national security. In 'Ethnicity, Ethnic Conflicts and Nigeria National Integration" , Theophilus Daniel Lagi (121-122) gives a chronicles of some crises in Nigeria from 1945-2004. He recalled the following civil unrests in Nigeria.

The Jos riot of 1945

Kano riot of 1953

The TIV uprising of 1959-1960-1964

Violence in Western Region 1962

Ethnic massacres within the Nigerian army which preceded the civil war in 1967

The civil war 1967-1970

Maitatsine crisis, 1980

Ife/Modakeke, 1981

Fagge crisis (Kano) 1982

Tiv/Jukun conflict 1990

Reinhand Bonke crisis, 1991

Zangón Kataf crisis, 1992

Mangul Bokkos crisis 1992-1995

Ugep/Idomi war 1992

Akaluka incidence (Kano) 1994

Tafawa Balewa crisis 1995

Jos ethno religious crisis 2001

Between 2001 to date, several ethnic and ethno-religious conflicts have occurred in Nigeria. For instance, the Oyadama and Nko (Cross River) war in 2009 in Maiduguri, the Boko Haram crisis in 2009, and the Jos ethno- religious crisis in 2010. It is pertinent to note that reasonable numbers of our tourist products are found in these states and communities. For instance, Plateau State with Jos as it states headquarters is one of the thirty six states in the Federal Republic of Nigeria that has tourism potentials ranging from beautiful sceneries, spectacular rock formations, waterfalls, lakes, game reserves, zoological gardens, wildlife park, and museums to mention some. This explains the reason why Plateau State has been identified as the "Nigeria's Tourism Haven" (Plateau State Tourism Board, 2009). Regrettably, the recurrent ethnic and ethno religious crisis has turned Plateau State, Nigeria's foremost tourists heaven has turned into the home of unrest, hate and devil's sanctuary, where tourists must shy away. The implication is that the pace of tourism development will nose dive unless the ethnic and ethno religious crisis and tribal wars are put to rest.

Of greatest concern to us is the involvement of some Nigerians in the terrorism game. Terrorism has been identified as both a tactic and strategy; a crime and duty and the biggest threat to world peace. The United Nation defines terrorism as

An anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action employed by (semi) clandestine individual group or state actors, for idiosyncratic criminal or political reasons whereby in contrast to assassination, the direct targets of violence are not main targets (http//www. tourism researchcom/pagel, 2006)

Terrorism is a reservoir of constraints to the development of tourism because the tourists and tourist destinations are constant target, globally. Undoubtedly, a few Nigerians have joined the terrorist party and as manifested by the botched attempt by the 23 year old Nigerian, Farouk Abdulmuttalab to bomb an airline in the United State of America (USA) at Christmas day, 2009, and the listing of Nigeria on the USA terrorist list as a country of special interest. Perhaps, Farouk Abdulmulttalab and his cohorts may be a harbinger of a northern network that has adopted extremism and terrorism as policy (Nigerian Tribune 4 February, 2010, 17). Indeed, violent fundamentalism and extremism in the name of religion has grown and become a mark of many cities in Northern Nigeria. Arguably, the frequency and systematic occurrence of religious extremism are designed to provoke terror in the pursuit of social, political and economic goals. Consequently, with the participation of a few Nigerians in the terrorism game, the recurrent ethnic and ethno religious riots, kidnapping of people in the Niger Delta area and other parts of the country, our fears become valid that our tourists and tourists' destinations may become centres of terrorist attacks.

It is pertinent to note that investors, travelers and tourists care about crime, the unpredictability of ethnic and ethno religious riots and communal crises because of the direct and indirect losses; physical injury, death, the safety of their properties and facilities. Perhaps, these security hazards may discourage tourists from traveling to Nigeria. It may also discourage stakeholders and organizers of tourism from investing in the tourism sector of our economy. Moreso, crime and terrorist attacks on tourists may damage diplomatic relationship between Nigeria and the home country of the tourists. Perhaps, it may undermine National Security and the ability of the Federal, State and Local Governments of Nigeria to promote tourism development.

7. FORWARD LOOKING SECURITY REMEDIES

Since crime, civil unrest and terrorism stunt the tourism trade, arts administrators, organizers and stakeholders of tourism must ensure the safety and security of tourists. To achieve this the following security measures are offered.

Arts administrators, organizers and stakeholders of tourism trade should liaise with the Federal, State, and Local Governments in Nigeria to form a Joint Security Team for Tourism, (JSTT) comprising of the army, police, air force, navy and private security companies. They must identify the possible security hazards and the implications for tourist events and destinations.

Arts administrators, organizers of tourism events, and the management of the State Tourism Board and Nigerian Tourism Cooperation should always evaluate security hazards. In planning for the security measures to take, stakeholders in tourism trade should pay serious attention to all security hazards that are both likely to occur and could cause any level of damage to tourists, tourist events and destinations.

In planning security measures for risk reduction, the stakeholders, of tourism should always engage the services of the JSTT overnight to protect the physical facilities, equipment, premises security fences and activities areas.

The arts administrators, organizers of tourism events, with the JSTT should apply preemptive naturalization counter attack measures. This includes capturing, killing or disabling suspected criminals before they can mount attack. Alternatively, they should interrogate known or suspected criminal or religious extremists to obtain information and data about specific plot, targets and identify other criminals and their mission.

Alternatively, they should apply the target-hardening security method to counter the operation of criminals and terrorists directed at tourists and tourist destinations. One of the ways of hardening the targets is bag searching for explosive and should be conducted before the search subjects enter an area of high population concentration. Another method is to place concrete barriers at sufficient distance outside buildings to prevent truck bombing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ tourism.2005 page 7)

Synonymous with the above, the Joint Security Task Force for Tourism trade should deploy the Foot and Motorized Patrol System (Beat Patrol System) in low and high risk areas to guard tourist destination areas. This increases the chances of criminals being apprehended and reduces potential criminal activities (Igbo, 125). The security team should also deploy the Highway Patrol Method which aims at checking forestalling the activities of criminals on the highways, rural and urban roads, streets, footpath leading to and from the tourist destinations and activities areas in the day and at night. It will help clear the roads, streets, footpath of any intended criminal or terrorist operations, and prevent them from hiting target marks.

Moreso, there is need for the JSTT to mount checkpoints at strategic point on the highways, rural roads, and pathways within the tourists destination, where motorists and travelers would be routinely searched for firearms, explosives, bombs and for the purpose of apprehending suspected criminals.

The management of the State Tourism Boards and Nigerian Tourism Corporation should equip their security personnel and the JSTT with sophisticated security gadgets to enhance bag searching, where motorists and travelers would be personally and thoroughly searched for criminal weapons. These equipment includes passages carry on x-ray screeners, baggage screeners, walk through metal detectors, and hand held metal detectors. This will help to forestall intended criminal activities and apprehend suspected criminals, religious extremists and terrorists.

The success of any events such as tourists' events depends on a good information network. In planning for tourist events, the arts administrators, organizers, the management of State Tourism Board, and the Nigerian Tourism Cooperation in conjunction with the Joint Security Task Force for tourism trade should adopt the domestic intelligence and surveillance security strategy. In planning for intelligence and surveillance operations, the JSTT should liaise with the State Security Service (SSS) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) to obtain information in respect of criminal operations and in tracing of persons suspected to be criminals, harbouring them or abetting criminal activities. It would also involve mass surveillance of an entire tourist destination and population areas to get information about the operations of criminals, terrorists and religious fundamentalists and their target marks. It implies that the management of State Tourism Boards and Nigerian Tourism Cooperation should provide the JSTT with new information technology/equipment to expand the range of the operation.

In planning for tourism events, arts administrators, organizers, the management of State Tourism Boards and Nigeria Tourism Cooperation should seek the cooperation of members of the communities where the tourist destinations are located in supplying information or reporting indiscriminate movement or activities of persons suspected to be criminals, terrorists or religious extremists to the management and Joint Security Task Force for Tourism for necessary action.

By adopting the above strategies, the security of tourist and tourist destinations in Nigeria would be guaranteed. Besides, it will boost the image of Nigeria's tourism trade and attract the confidence of the International Tourism organization, individuals, groups, and tourists to invest in the business of tourism in Nigeria.

8. CONCLUSION

In this study, we have examined Nigeria's tourism potentials. We have identified crimes, ethnic or ethno religious conflicts, kidnappings, terrorism to mention some, as enemies to tourism in Nigeria. We have proffered forward looking remedies. We are convinced that the manifestation of conventional crimes and the international and local security warnings are not "Negative Propaganda" against Nigeria. Instead of directing our energies to fight the so called "Negative Propaganda", the stakeholders of tourism trade, should think of how to cope with crimes and civil unrests that impede tourism development in Nigeria. This would guarantee sustainability and progressive development of tourism trade in Nigeria.

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Author affiliation:

Adora, Charles U.1

Author affiliation:

1 Ph.D teaches and researches on Theatre Management and Arts Administration in the Department of Theatre Arts, Kogi State University, Anyigba-Nigeria. He has journal articles, and conference papers on topical issues to his credit. Department of theatre arts, kogi state university, p.m.b. 1008, anyigba, kogi state - nigeria.

E-mail:adoracharles@yahoo.com

* Received 5 February, 2010; accepted 10 March, 2010

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