Flood is a catastrophic event that has a long history and occurs both in developed and developing countries. Flood is recurrent, its severity varies over a wide range, and it is largely unpredictable in terms of magnitude and occurrence. Vulnerability to flood has been linked to poverty and cultural affiliations in developing countries. Poverty affects people's capacity to protect themselves and their assets, as well as their ability to live in areas having less exposure to risk factors such as low income, poor housing and public services. Lack of flood insurance coverage and cultural attachment to the flood zone can force the poor to behave in ways that expose them to greater risk. Often, after floodwaters have subsided, the emphasis has been placed on rebuilding structures and trying to restore flood victims' lives back to normal as quickly as possible without addressing the causes. Unfortunately, in the rush, these flood victims have often rebuilt their structures to their previous "at risk" conditions. The economic cost or human losses from flood are enormous. There is growing societal impatience with continually bailing out those who live at risk. The realization that flood can never be controlled since they are part of a dynamic process caused by natural phenomena is very important. This review reflects on present and future challenges and priorities. The tasks ahead are immense as these solutions must be implemented in the face of a multitude of problems, such as conflicts, lack of leadership, economic corruption, discrimination, unstable governments, dictatorships, pandemics, lack of infrastructure, low education and public health, poverty, and over one billion humans without the basic needs of life being met. KEY WORDS: Flood, Rainfall, Runoff, Sea level, Vulnerability.

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