Author: Atkins, Paul S
Date published: April 1, 2010
Journal code: PJOS
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)
Fujiwara no Teika ... (also known as Sadaie; 1162-1241) was a courtier and poet of Japan's early medieval period, an era in which political and economic structures were shifting from a court-centered model to one in which power became concentrated in the hands of a military government. This transition, which occurred over a span of almost two centuries, has been typically portrayed as an unmitigated disaster to the aristocratic class as a whole, but Teika was one of a number of courtiers with close ties to military elites who benefited during this time. Within the context of Japanese literary history, Teika was a leading figure in a coterie of poets who revolutionized the use of imagery, allusion, and diction in the 31 -syllable waka form, an effort that culminated in the compilation of the eighth imperial anthology of waka poetry, Shin kokin wakashü (or Shin Kokinshü; New Anthology of Ancient and Modern Poetry, ca. 1205).
For these two reasons - Teika' s position at the nexus of the courtier and warrior classes at a pivotal moment, and his indispensable role in the creation, critique, and compilation of some of Japan's most highly regarded verse - his diary has great importance for scholars of Japanese political, social, and cultural history. Clear evidence for the diary's value is furnished by even a cursory glance through the corresponding volumes of the definitive chronology of premodern Japanese history, Dai Nihon shiryö (Historical Documents of Greater Japan, 1901-, 380+ vols.). The Meigetsuki is frequently cited as a source for significant events, and in many instances it is the only extant source.1
The diary is commonly known as Meigetsuki ... (Record of the Brilliant Moon); the Reizei family, Teika' s most prominent surviving heirs, pronounce it "Meigekki," according to tradition. The Nijö branch of the Fujiwara line referred to the diary as Shököki ... .2 No evidence exists that Teika used any of these names; he referred to it simply as "my foolish diary" (guki ...), as conventional modesty dictated. Originally, the diary spanned a period from the Jishö era (1177-80) to the Ninji era (1240-42), ending some time before Teika' s death on Ninji 2.8.20 (1241). 3 The earliest extant entry is from Jishö 4.2.5 (1180); the latest extant entry is from Tenpuku 1.12.29 (1233). About thirty percent of the entire diary has survived, much of it in the hand of Teika or his scribes.4 The bulk of the autograph edition of the diary is in the possession of a foundation created by the Reizei family and has been designated a National Treasure by the Japanese government. 5
From the late medieval period onward, powerful literati pressed the Reizei for access to the Meigetsuki in order to make copies. (The standard printed edition of Meigetsuki, originally published in 1911, noted the existence of several dozen premodern copies, of which twenty-six were consulted and seven used heavily in the preparation of the edition.6) Among these copies are the Keichö copy, believed to have been ordered by the retired shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616) in 1614. 7 Such copies were especially useful when the Reizei autograph version was closely held, but they retain considerable value today, and a facsimile of the Tokudaiji copy was recently published. 8
Much can be said about the various scrolls that collectively comprise the autograph version, but I will make only two essential points. First, the autograph version is itself a copy of earlier originals that were lost. That is, we do not have Teika' s "diaries" in the sense of a set of scrolls that he wrote in every day. We have fair copies of those scrolls, which it is believed Teika was planning to edit into a final product that he could bequeath to his heirs as an indexed reference work (the original diaries are gone and it appears that Teika never completed the final version). Second, the term "autograph" is used loosely; there are a number of scrolls in the so-called "autograph" version that are clearly in a hand other than Teika' s; these are believed to have been copied out by some of his retainers. This further prompts the possibility that even some of the scrolls that appear to be in Teika' s hand were actually by a retainer who could imitate his handwriting with facility. 9 The question of which scrolls were actually copied by Teika himself remains unanswered. Nonetheless, the presence of verso documents, tell-tale ruled lines at the top and bottom of each page, and general similarities with Teika' s handwriting allow us to determine whether any given scroll or fragment is authentic (i.e., produced in Teika' s household or not).
Since the sixteenth century, when the element of wabi (austere, rustic beauty) was incorporated into the Japanese tea ceremony, Teika' s poetry and calligraphy have been prized by generations of tea practitioners and calligraphic connoisseurs. Teika regarded his own handwriting as unsightly, but it is relatively legible and consistent, and the extreme difference in thickness between horizontal and vertical strokes makes it easily identifiable. Perhaps because it lacks the conventional virtues of roundedness, delicacy, and fluidity, it may seem to display aspects of the writer's stubborn personality and appear idiosyncratic. Combined with the author's own fame, these qualities made Teika' s calligraphy extremely attractive to collectors, and a significant portion of the extant autograph version exists in the form of fragments cut from Meigetsuki and mounted on scrolls for display.
DESCRIPTION OF THE HARVARD SCROLL AND ITS PROVENANCE
The collection of the Harvard University Art Museums includes a one-month-long scroll of the autograph version, spanning the ninth month of the second year of the Karoku era (1226). It is the only portion of the autograph version known to be held outside Japan. The scroll is composed of eleven sheets of paper glued together end to end. The sheets are about one foot high and the entire length of the scroll is about ten feet. There are four lacunae where the scroll has been cut, a portion removed, and the ends rejoined. 10
The scroll was donated to Harvard in 1977 by Mary Hyde (later Viscountess Eccles, 1912-2003). What is known about its earlier provenance may be summarized as follows. The scroll originally formed part of a longer scroll for the autumn of Karoku 2; i.e., the seventh, eighth, and ninth months. It is likely that this seasonal scroll had already left the possession of the Reizei before Ieyasu ordered the Keichö copy produced in 1614. Its whereabouts for the next three centuries or so are unknown, but after the Second World War it was offered for sale by the legendary antiquarian book dealer Sorimachi Shigeo (1901-91). Sorimachi stated that he purchased it from another dealer in 1950, and listed it twice in his printed sales catalogue without success. In the 1960s he at last sold it to Mary and Donald F. Hyde (1909-66), ardent American book collectors who were better known for their collection on English drama and Johnsoniana, yet built a small but impressive Japanese collection on the side with the help of Sorimachi and others. n The Hy des purchased it in autumn of 1963 for ?1,800,000 (then worth $5,000). 12 Neither of the Hydes could read Chinese or Japanese; they bought the scroll because it was offered to them by Sorimachi, who understood their plans to build a small collection of high quality. Most of the Hyde collection was auctioned at Christie's in 1988 and much of it was repurchased by Sorimachi, but almost thirty fine pieces were donated to Harvard in the years before the auction, including the Meigetsuki scroll.13
Sorimachi also acquired the eighth month scroll around the same time as the ninth month scroll, so it is possible that the seasonal scroll remained intact until the twentieth century, and was then divided. (The seventh month scroll was destroyed during the Allied bombing of Tokyo in March, 1945.) It is probable that the fragments were taken out after the ninth month scroll left the possession of the Reizei, but it is also possible that verso documents were excised while the Reizei still owned it. 14
The Harvard Meigetsuki is prominent in the annals of Meigetsuki research because of a serendipitous discovery about it made by the eminent scholar Tsuji Hikosaburö. Tsuji was viewing the Komonjo Ötekagami, a two-volume album of handwriting samples of some of the most illustrious figures in Japanese history, when he noticed that several of the letters included in the album had been carefully cut off the back of sheets used to write the autograph version of the Meigetsuki (it is believed that Teika copied the Meigetsuki onto the backs of old letters not only to save paper, but that the letters served as corroboratory material for the diary15). Tsuji identified which parts of the Meigetsuki the letters had been taken from, and even matched one letter to a fragment of the Karoku 2.9 scroll that was no longer part of the main scroll. 16
The four lacunae are included and indicated in the translation below. Of the four, two were located or known by Tsuji, and the third has recently been offered for sale; of the fourth nothing is known.17
During the period covered by the translation, Teika was sixty-five years old (by the East Asian count; sixty-four by the Western). He held the court rank of Junior Second (the highest was Senior First; courtiers of Teika' s class began at Junior Fifth) and the office of Minister of Popular Affairs, a government bureau that collected and preserved information about the provinces, including population records and tax data. By and large, however, Teika' s own career was nearing its end, and his attention was focused on the advancement of his son and heir Tameie.
The political context within which Teika and Tameie were operating had been powerfully shaped by the Jökyü Disorder of 1221, whose effects could still be felt. In that uprising, the retired emperor Go-Toba (1180-1239), one of Teika' s former patrons, had attempted to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate and reinstate direct rule of the nation by the imperial family. This armed action was easily stopped by the shogunate, which exiled him and two of his sons, executed some of his supporters, and confiscated a great deal of property. The shogunate installed a new emperor from a collateral line and some courtiers were purged. Teika, however, benefited from his estrangement from Go-Toba and his close connections with the Kujö and Saionji families, who served as power brokers and liaisons to the shogunate.
With regard to literary activities, Teika had almost entirely given up composition in the waka form and was expending his energies elsewhere. First, he frequently hosted sessions of linked verse (renga) composition for a circle of acquaintances and students. Renga broke the 5-7-5-7-7 syllabic structure of waka into two halves of 5-7-5 and 7-7, and participants took turns capping one another's half- verses, creating a string of links. In time, renga would be invested with elaborate rules, protocol, and a canon of its own, but we witness in Teika' s time the thrill of creative energy unbound by the traditional restraints of waka and infused with new joy. Second, Teika was active in editing and copying classic Japanese literary works such as the first imperial waka anthology, Kokin wakashü (or Kokinshü, Anthology of Ancient and Modern Japanese Poetry, ca. 905), and The Tale ofGenji. No such efforts were recorded during the ninth month of Karoku 2, but in the previous month Teika had finished writing Hekianshö (Mistaken Commentaries), a commentary on selected poems of Kokin wakashü.
The section of the Meigetsuki translated below has no particular significance and is therefore representative of the work as a whole. Reading it, one is impressed anew by Teika' s intense interest in court affairs, his thirst for information and gossip of all kinds, and his close engagement with Buddhist practices and practitioners. Although he had achieved literary greatness and the future of his children was secure, he felt in a general sense that society was crumbling and that the lowered morals of courtiers played some role in this failure. To a certain degree he was correct: there were numerous signs of trouble, such as the break-in and arson of the archives of the ministry he headed (described in the translated portion). More shockingly, the courtier Minamoto no Masayuki (b. 1168), with whom Teika had once quarreled as a youth, had been recently exiled for having his son and daughter killed; it was rumored the children were having an incestuous affair.
Despite the high historical value of the Meigetsuki, its intrinsic value as an object of calligraphic art, and a flood of scholarly research published in Japanese over the past decade, very little has been written about the diary per se in English.18 It is hoped that this brief introduction and translation will stimulate further efforts to mine the Meigetsuki's rich veins.
NOTES ON THE TRANSLATION
The translation is based on the autograph version of the text, which is held by Harvard University Art Museums. 19 The text of lacunae was supplied from the Tokudaiji copy.20 The difficult tasks of interpretation and annotation have been greatly aided by a host of specialized reference material. In particular, I have found indispensable two works published by the Meigetsuki research group, led by Professor Gomi Fumihiko: a handbook, Meigetsuki kenkyü teiyö, and the volumes of Meigetsuki kenkyü, an annual journal dedicated to the study of Teika and his age. The only annotated version of the complete diary, Inamura Eiichi's Kundoku Meigetsuki, has also been useful. For general information, I have relied heavily on the online, searchable version of Dai Nihon shiryö; the rosters of senior nobles collected in Kugyö bunin; and the genealogical work Sonpi bunmyaku.21
Text in parentheses indicates that the original text is formatted in half-size characters (warigaki .... typically two lines per ordinary line); this size was used for supplementary information. Text in brackets does not appear in the original and has been added for clarification. Italicized text in brackets describes the layout of the text (location of lacunae, etc.); roman text in brackets amplifies the translation. The original text includes several headnotes (jöran hosho ...). Their approximate location is indicated in the translation by single or double asterisks, and the text is supplied at an appropriate place. Text stricken from the original has been included in the translation; it is enclosed in brackets and indicated with a dagger.
Ninth month (long)
1st. (Junior Wood/Ox.) Clear.
Tadahiro has been holding some simple pre-mortem rites for his salvation since the first day of the [autumnal] equinox. (He is a disciple of the Saga monk.) Today he will ask Shöjaku-bö [to preside]. I will not go hear him, as I have so little free time.
Bishop Söun sent a long box with a request for some vegetables, so I sent him some. Copied the sutra all day. Did not finish writing out the rest of Roll 4, wrote out Roll 5. (14 more sheets, the end of the "Comfortable Conduct" chapter.) The Adviser [Tameie] will return to the capital tomorrow. (To collect offerings for the priests at Kitayama, etc.)
The first entry of the month specifies the length of the month and the day's place in the Chinese calendrical cycle. "Long" months of thirty days and "short" months of twenty-nine days were used in alternation, and periodic adjustments were made using intercalary months. (Junior Wood/Ox was the fiftieth day in the sixty-day cycle.)
Tadahiro was a relative of Teika and his most trusted retainer. He had taken Buddhist lay orders the previous year. Those with the means to do so commissioned Buddhist rites on their own behalf in hopes of attaining enlightenment in the afterlife. The vernal and autumnal equinoxes held particular importance in Japanese Buddhism because on those days the sun sets directly in the west, regarded as the direction in which the Pure Land was located. Events commemorating the equinox were held for three days before and three days after in addition to the day of the equinox itself.
The Saga Monk is unidentified, but the monk Shöjaku-bö (d. 1231) was active in the western suburbs of Kyoto, where Teika' s villa was located, and sometimes composed renga with Teika. Bishop (sözu ...) Söun appears to have been a son of the courtier Fujiwara no (Jimyöin) Motomune (1155-1202).
Based on later entries, it is clear that "the sütra" refers to the Lotus Sutra (Skt. Saddharmapundarïka- sütra). Teika was a Buddhist of the Tendai school, which deeply venerates the Lotus. He had begun copying it on the twenty-fourth day of the previous month, after washing his hair and performing ablutions. The Chinese translation of the Lotus Sütra by Kumârajïva is composed of eight rolls, each in turn comprised of two to five chapters. 22
Adviser (sangi ...) was an important post held by Teika' s second son and heir, Tameie (1198-1275). He had been appointed to the office that year, joining the ranks of the senior nobles, and held Senior Fourth Rank, lower grade. Tameie had been on a pilgrimage to Hiyoshi Shrine (also called Hie; located in present-day Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture) since the twenty-fifth of the previous month. The capital was Kyoto.
Tameie was assigned the task of offering alms to the monks who were conducting a rite at Kitayama, the villa of Fujiwara no Kintsune (1171-1244), a former Prime Minister (dajö daijin ...), who was half-brother to Teika' s wife and had officially adopted Tameie. The grounds were located in the northwest area of Kyoto where Kinkakuji (the famous "Temple of the Golden Pavilion") stands now.
2nd. Clear. Afternoon cloudy, rain about 5 p.m.
The Adviser [Tameie] returned to the capital about the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.]. In the evening he wrote to say that he was at Saionji, with four Third-Rankers (Kintoshi, ordinary dress; Tomoie; Tokikata; and Ietoki, ordinary dress). Lord Motosada, Munenobu, Lord Sanetsune, S aneto, Sanekiyo, Yoriuji, et al. [Tameie] may begin eating garlic on the 5th.
Copied Roll 6 all day, up to the "Merits of the Dharma-Preacher" (14 pages per day). The confessors left. Discreetly gave them coins (one string each).
During this period of his life, Teika received and recorded a great deal of information from Tameie, who was more active socially and politically than himself. The dispatch from Saionji (the temple located at Kintsune's villa, after which his lineage was named) includes a list of courtiers, given in precise order of their ranks: Fujiwara no (Sanjö) Kintoshi (b. 1 191), Senior Third Rank; Fujiwara no Tomoie (1182-1258), Junior Third Rank; Minamoto no Tokikata (1176-1255), Junior Third Rank; Fujiwara no Ietoki (d. 1236), Junior Third Rank; Fujiwara no Motosada (1171-1237), Senior Fifth Rank, lower grade; Taira no Munenobu (1177-1231), Senior Fourth Rank, lower grade; Fujiwara no Sanetsune (later Sanemochi; 1189-1256), Junior Fourth Rank, lower grade; Fujiwara no Sanetö (b. 1207), Senior Fourth Rank, lower grade; Fujiwara no Sanekiyo (1209-92), Senior Fifth Rank, lower grade; and Fujiwara no Yoriuji, (1198-1248), Junior Fifth Rank, upper grade.
The entry for the eighth day of the previous month says that Tameie was suffering from a stomach ailment, for which eating garlic was the only available treatment. He could not attend court while eating it.23
Context supplied by the previous entry suggests that the person discreetly offering alms to the monks is Tameie and he is doing it at Kitayama, but the subject of the immediately previous sentence, about copying sütras, is clearly Teika. It is possible that Teika was holding his own equinoctial services, and was paying his monks just as his son was offering alms to Kintsune's monks at Saionji.
3rd. Rain since last night, finally cleared during the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.].
Copied the sutra all day. Finished around sunset ("Apparition of the Jeweled Stupa," "Welling Up out of the Earth," and "Merits of the Dharma-Preacher" chapters).
4th. Morning sky clear into the distance.
The lady-in-waiting went to Saga.
Dharma Eye Kakukan came to chat during the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.]. He said that Dharma Eye Jökai died this morning, age 76; was a close retainer of Cloistered Prince Shukaku.
The lady-in-waiting is Teika' s eldest daughter Inshi (b. ca. 1195), whose mother was Teika' s first wife. Inshi had served as a lady-in-waiting to Emperor Go-Toba before the Jökyü Disorder and was living with Teika while he made efforts on behalf of her advancement. She is better known by a later tide, Go-Horikawa-in Minbukyö no suke.24
Kakukan was a clerical official at Ninnaji, a Shingon temple in northern Kyoto, which was historically headed by cloistered imperial princes. Also active as a poet, he served as a liaison between Teika and Cloistered Prince Döjo (1196-1249), then the abbot of Ninnaji, and frequently passed on valuable information. He visited Teika so often during this period that Teika referred to him simply as "Dharma Eye" (his clerical rank).25
The Ninnaji monk Jökai was a son of the courtier Fujiwara no Naritaka. Cloistered Prince Shukaku (1150-1202) was the second son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa (1127-92). He served as abbot of Ninnaji.
Heard today there was another promotion list issued on the last day [of last month]. Fujiwara no Morisue was appointed Governor of Inaba out of * the Empress [Chöshi]' s allotment; the Adviser and Middle Captain [Morikane] was given provincial service. (Would his elder brother [Morisue], a gentleman-in- waiting, keep his current office? Later heard the Chamberlain Controller [Norisuke]' s provincial service would be performed by his deputy Suketomo.)
The former Minister of the Center [Michimitsu] was said to be despondent.**
* (Norisuke' s provincial service: the three provinces of Harima, Inaba, and Aki (deputy); resigned Etchü, Chikatoshi will [!receive] administrate it.)
** (Last year, in order to win support for reappointment, he constructed a lodge at Yawata, and finished ahead of schedule. He was not told that he would be replaced this year, and was dismissed for no reason, so he is depressed and angry.)
En masse promotions of officials were customarily held twice a year in the spring and autumn, but lists could also be issued ad hoc. There was in fact such a list (shojimoku ...) issued on 8.29. 26
The diversion of provincial tax revenues away from public coffers and into private hands is frequently invoked as one of the chief causes of the decline of court power in early medieval Japan. We see a concrete example in this entry. Under the allotted-province (bunkoku ...) system, powerful individuals had the right to nominate courtiers for appointment by the court to provincial governorships, which could be lucrative offices. In some cases, the entire revenue of a province was assigned to an individual, who appointed a governor or deputy to oversee the tax collection. In this case, it is clear that Empress Chöshi (later Takatsukasa-in; 1218-75) has been granted the right to nominate the governor of Inaba. The nine-year-old Chöshi, daughter of the courtier Fujiwara (Konoe) no Iezane (1 179-1243), had been installed as empress on 7.29, effectively supplanting the previous empress, Fujiwara no Yüshi (Ankimon-in, 1207-86), who was "promoted" to senior empress.
Provincial governors came from the middle ranks of the courtiers, so higher-ranking courtiers who received such appointments would appoint deputies to serve in their places. It would appear that Fujiwara no Morikane (1191-1245), who held the post of Adviser and Senior Fourth Rank, lower grade, was nominated as governor, and Teika wonders whether his elder brother Morisue (n.d.), who had a less illustrious career, would serve as his deputy. This is the case for Taira no Norisuke (1192-1235), Head Chamberlain and Senior Fourth Rank, lower grade; Abe no Suketomo was a lower-ranking courtier who, along with Norisuke, had recently been appointed to the Office of the Empress' Household.27 As courtiers were given new offices, they resigned others, sometimes as a condition of appointment. Norisuke's previous appointment in the province of Etchü was given to Fujiwara no Chikatoshi (b. 1207). Teika initially wrote that Chikatoshi would 'receive' (tamau ...) Etchü but, perhaps because that term connotes the exclusive right to tax revenue, replaced it with 'administrate' (okonau ...).
Chöshi (or, more accurately, her father) was exercising a privilege recently gained on her installation as empress. Inaba Province had previously been the usufruct of Minamoto (Kuga) no Michimitsu (also read Michiteru; 1187-1248), Senior Second Rank.28 It is clear that the power structure was being realigned at his expense. Did he build the lodge for pilgrims at Yawata (an area south of Kyoto near Iwashimizu Hachiman shrine) because he had hoped to curry favor with the shogunate, since the late shogun Yoritomo had established a branch of the shrine (Tsurugaoka Hachiman) at Kamakura?
The Dharma Eye went home after about an hour.
At dusk, Shökei-bö accompanied me to Saga, then went home.
Late in the night I finished copying the 7th chapter.
A Buddhist monk who appears several times in Meigetsuki around this time, Shökei-bö is described variously as living in Nara or in Daigo (site of Daigoji, southeast of Kyoto).
5th. (Junior Fire/Snake). Clear.
Tsuchimikado Kömon came to visit; she went home around sunset. By lamplight I finished writing out the Eighth Roll. I suppose it will be the last such devotion of my life. I feel joy in my heart at having realized a long-standing wish without incident or difficulty.
Tsuchimikado Kömon was one of Teika' s younger sisters, also known as Aiju gozen (n.d). She was a lady-in-waiting to Shömeimon'in (1171-1257), the mother of the former emperor Tsuchimikado (1195-1231), who was living in voluntary exile, and helped raise the emperor's daughters.29
6th. Cloudy, then clear. Around noon a light drizzle fell.
Copied the Sütra of Innumerable Meanings all day until the hour of the Boar [7-9 p.m.].
This sütra is known in Japanese as the Muryögikyö ... (Skt. Amitärtha- sütra). It, the Lotus, and the Fugengyö (mentioned below) were treated as a unit by the Tendai school. 30
Copied the Sütra of Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Vow all day until evening. Gratified and overjoyed by [having realized] a long-standing wish in my old age without incident or difficulty.
The Japanese title of the sütra is Fugengyö ... an abbreviation of Kan fugen bosatsu gyöbökyö ... (Skt. Samantabhadra-bodhisattva- sütra).
8th. (First fortnight of ninth month). Cloudy in the morning, sunny from the hour of the Dragon [7-9 a.m.].
The lingering heat has lasted quite a while. Yesterday and the day before that I wore an unlined cloth robe; this morning was still hot.
The phrase kugatsu setsu ... (translated here as "first fortnight of ninth month") is commonly glossed as the Chrysanthemum Festival (chöyö no sai ...), an important palace event, but that is held on the ninth day, not the eighth, of the ninth month. In this case the term refers to the beginning of one of twenty-four calendrical periods that comprise the solar year, each lasting approximately fifteen days.
9th. Cloudy, drizzled then stopped, cloudy the rest of the day.
*With such hot weather, I went home. Ate fish today. Have felt tired lately, and wound up sleeping the entire day - the ultimate in senility! So hot I kept continued wearing the unlined robe even at night.
*Later heard the ceremony [of the Chrysanthemum Festival] held in His Majesty's absence [was attended by] the Sanjö Senior Counselor (Sane[chika]), the New Counselor (Yorisuke), the Adviser and Middle Captain (Korehira), [|and many others attended], Takachika, Morikane; the officiant's servants, pages, guards, and attendants.
Fujiwara (Sanjö) no Sanechika (1195-1263) held Senior Second Rank and served as supernumerary Senior Counselor. The second character of his name is omitted in the autograph manuscript, but another source tells us that he officiated.31
Other participants included Fujiwara no Yorisuke (11 82-1236), Junior Third Rank, supernumerary Counselor; Fujiwara (Takatsukasa) no Korehira (b. 1199), Senior Third Rank, Adviser, and Middle Captain of the Right Imperial Bodyguards; Fujiwara (Shijö) no Takachika (b. 1202), Senior Third Rank, Adviser, and Commander of the Right Gate Guards; and Morikane, mentioned above.
The phrase nochi ni kiku ... (translated here as "later heard that . . .") begins many of the headnotes found in the Meigetsuki and compactly illustrates that the headnotes do not merely summarize the main text, but actually expand upon it, adding important information. Unfortunately, they were omitted from the standard edition (the Kokusho Kankökai version of 1901) and, therefore, for close study of any particular entry, autograph versions, good copies (such as the Tokudaiji copy), or the Tsuji edition (for entries up to Kenkyü 8.12 ) must be consulted.32
10th. Clear; the evening moon looked pure and bright.
In the evening Jöshö-bö stopped by. He told me that he would visit Tennöji temple the day after tomorrow with the widow of the late Minister of the Left [Yoshisuke]. Told him that in the middle of the ninth month that temple has an unrivalled formal dignity; laypeople and clergy alike clamor amid its splendor, and monks should be ashamed to mix among crowds; it would be better to complete his pilgrimage around the middle of the tenth month. He reluctantly agreed.
Jöshö-bö (Fujiwara no Mitsuie, n.d.) was a son of Teika' s by his first wife, whom he divorced, and was the eldest of his children. He had taken Buddhist orders the previous year. Originally intended as Teika' s heir, he entered court service, but lacked poetic ability and Teika replaced him as heir with Tameie. In lay life he had served Fujiwara no (Kujö) Yoshisuke (11 85-121 8).33
Tennöji is an abbreviation of Shitennöji, the "Temple of the Four Heavenly Kings," said to have been founded by Prince Shötoku in 593. It is located in present-day Tennqji Ward, Osaka City. The devout regarded its western gate as the eastern gate of paradise, and the equinoxes were popular times for pilgrims to visit and watch the sun set.
11th. Clear, then cloudy after the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.]. Light drizzle after the hour of the Monkey [3-5 p.m.].
About the hour of the Snake, Lady Takakura stopped by in her carriage and invited Shökei-bö along; they said they were visiting the Tsukinowa Palace.*
Hachijö-in no Takakura (ca. 1178-) was a former lady-in-waiting of the imperial lady Hachijö-in and an accomplished poet. Her father was the famous monk Chöken (11261203), who founded the Agui lineage of preachers.
The Tsukinowa Palace had been built by the regent Kujö Kanezane (1149-1207) on the grounds of the temple Hosshöji, located in present-day Higashiyama and Fushimi Wards in Kyoto, near Töfukuji temple. Hosshöji was a tutelary temple of the Fujiwara family, and was closely associated with the Kujö branch, Teika' s patrons. It no longer stands. The Meigetsuki entry for 8.20 suggests that one of Kanezane' s daughters, the cloistered empress Gishümon'in (1173-1238), was living there.
* Around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.] Sadanaka arrived. Heard that lately he has been at the house of the Head Chamberlain and Controller [Norisuke]. He said that the Hall of Government Documents had burned down and that many of the items used for Inspections had burned. When I asked whether there would be an investigation of an incident such as this, he replied that for the time being they were not undertaking anything at all except the expenses and [Lacuna A (headnote) begins] preparations for the installation of the empress. How terrible! [Lacuna A (headnote) ends]
Sadanaka is unidentified. The Meigetsuki entry for 8.27 indicates that the Hall of Government Documents (Kan nofudono ...) refers to the West Archive of the Council of State (Daijökan ...). Initial reports said it was looted by gamblers and then burned down, but Teika later heard that the fire was accidentally started by the servant of a minister sent to borrow some documents. Formal inspections of lower-ranking candidates for promotion were held every year on the eleventh day of the second month.
In the evening the administrator Kunikane sent me a note via his son. The junior official Matsuhisa was making his rounds today at about the hour of the Monkey [3-5 p.m.] when he discovered that the Ministry's archive had been broken into by thieves. Surprised, he looked inside and discovered that torches and other items had been dropped. As for what has been lost, there is no way to determine it. For the time being, he wished to report the matter to his superior. In response I wrote that after a preliminary investigation is done, there would probably be a judgment handed down, by someone other than myself. He should report the matter to the Head Chamberlain immediately. The other day, the Head Chamberlain and Controller [Norisuke] left on a pilgrimage to Tennöji temple (they say three hundred people accompanied him) and he has not yet returned. Therefore [Lacuna A (main text) begins] I sent a letter to the Assistant Head Chamberlain (Nobumori). Heard that recently this matter has become widely known. Words cannot describe the [lack of] forethought of the triple-post controller [Norisuke]. By this one may discern the ruin of the realm. How difficult it is to preserve the record books of previous sovereigns for future generations! Although we report this, is there likely to be any inquiry [Lacuna A (main text) ends] made?
With this passage begins Teika' s involvement with the most significant political incident described in this portion of the diary, a break-in at the archives of the ministry he headed. Through his reactions to the break-in and the responses of other officials, Teika reveals that he has little faith in his bureaucratic colleagues, and regards the matter as simply another piece of evidence that he has been born into a degenerate age. It is likely that the tone of his complaints accounts for part of the scroll having been removed here, perhaps by a collector with similar sentiments about a later time.
Ki no Kunikane had been appointed the previous year as administrator (nen'yo ^Sf) of the Ministry of Popular Affairs.34 Matsuhisa is unidentified. Fujiwara no Nobumori (1189-1266) held Senior Fifth Rank, lower grade, and assisted Norisuke as Deputy Head Chamberlain.
Teika reserves special condemnation for Norisuke, who was his son Tameie' s rival in their pursuit of advancement at court. He seems to be enviously mocking him with the sobriquet "triple-post controller" (sanji no ben ...). Simultaneously occupying the offices of Controller, Chamberlain, and Deputy Commander of the Gate Guards, as Norisuke did, was regarded as a high honor.
** Last summer the Third Rank Wet Nurse ordered Korehira (head priest of the Kamo Shrine) to build her a house at Shigenoi so that she could bring her mother to live with her. The imperial lady's gift of thanks was thirty strings of cash. Each string was wrapped in spindle-tree paper decorated with red plum blossoms. His ladies-in-waiting were excited and divided them up joyfully, they say.
** (Later heard that it was not at Shigenoi. There was a directional taboo from the Nijö house. She gave him three strings of cash. Everyone mocked this.)
The Third Rank Wet Nurse was the wife of Fujiwara no (Shigenoi) Sanenobu (11771228). 35 Her mother Seishi (n.d.) was the wet nurse of the reigning emperor, Go-Horikawa.
Korehira (1162-1229) was head of the Upper Kamigamo Shrine, an important Shinto shrine located in northeast Kyoto. He is not the courtier by the same name above. (In fact, Teika himself erred; the priest's name is written with the characters ... but Teika wrote ... using the characters of the courtier's name.)
Shigenoi was an area of Kyoto located a few blocks east of the Imperial Palace compound. The Meigetsuki entry for 7.11 mentions that the mother wanted the house built there so her courtier relatives could enjoy respite from the heat. Nijö is an avenue in Kyoto running eastwest, located a few blocks south of the Shigenoi site.
This time Shökei-bö told me that the mother of the abbot of Daigoji (a bishop? Heir of the ThirdRank Prince), a nun (all of the prince's children were by this nun), is currently residing at the cloister of Lord Arimichi's elder sister, who is called the Shin Amidabutsu Nun. The mother of this Shin Amidabutsu is the younger sister of Dharma Seal Chöken; because of this connection Lady Takakura is always at her cloister. The nun devotedly serves the people living with her, making herself their servant. The prince's sons regard the prince's widow (Lord Masachika's elder sister) as a stepmother. Because the stepmother detested their birth mother, she would not care for them. The nun's father, a lay monk (junior samurai), escorted her to Daigo. The abbot's younger brother was ordered by the warriors not to become a monk. Lord Michitomo heard this and discreetly expressed the desire to support [the widowed nun] financially. Isn't this like the reputation of the Liu clan?
When seeing and hearing this I felt only pain in my heart. Fan Wenzi had his priest pray for his death.
Much of the valuable information in Meigetsuki is hearsay reported by Teika, rather than firsthand experience. This is especially true of entries from his later years. This complicated story is part of Teika' s attempt to come to grips with what he perceives as the fallen standards of his age. He sums up his feelings with two apt references to classical Chinese literature, one of the stylistic flourishes that distinguishes the Meigetsuki as the diary of a deeply and broadly read poet.
The entry discusses the widows and sons of Prince Koreakira (1179-1221). Koreakira had two wives. The first was the daughter of Fujiwara no Kintoki (1 168-1220); she died young in 1207. 36 Before her death, she bore the prince three sons: Cloistered Prince Shökai (1206-?); Kokuson (also called Prince Katano and Prince Daichi-in; n.d.); and the monk Son'un (n.d.), who was active on Mt. Hiei.
Koreakira later took a second wife, the daughter of Minamoto no Michisuke (d. 1205). She is the widowed nun referred to in this entry, the elder sister of Minamoto no Masachika (1180-1249). (Some details have been garbled due to having been transmitted third-hand; this nun was not the children's natural mother. She was their stepmother, and, due to the enmity between her and their birth-mother, refused to care for them after their birth-mother died. Also, her father was already dead, so he could not have escorted her to Daigoji; perhaps it was another relative.) Now that the prince is dead and can no longer care for her, his widow goes to her stepson at the temple for help, but he refuses to help her, still bitter at the memory of having been neglected by her and of her animosity toward the lost mother whom he is too young to remember.
The abbot's younger brother is Kokuson, who had not been installed as a prince of the blood nor given a coming-of-age ceremony. In the previous year, he had been prevented from taking holy orders by order of the shogunate. He became known for erratic behavior and, in 1220, ran away to Kamakura, where he was found praying at the Hachiman Shrine. Kokuson was returned to Kyoto under escort and finally permitted to become a monk.37
Turned away by her stepsons at Daigoji, the widowed nun has been taken in by the Shin Amidabutsu Nun, sister of Minamoto no Arimichi (d. 1213) and a niece of the late archbishop Chöken, glossed in the entry for the eleventh day. Lady Takakura, the former ladyin-waiting who stopped by Teika' s house in a carriage on the eleventh, is one of Chöken' s daughters, and often visits the Shin Amidabutsu Nun. She is quite likely the unattributed source for this story, relayed to Teika via Shökei-bö, who heard it during the carriage ride. At last an uncle of the widowed nun, Minamoto no Michitomo (1171-1227), Senior Second Rank, Senior Counselor, learns of her plight and wishes to help her financially.
Teika finds this episode disturbing. It of course illustrates a violation of the traditional virtue of filial piety, but might have especially affected Teika because he, too, had two wives, had two sets of acknowledged children (and others by unknown women), and was approaching the end of his life. What would become of them after his death?
"Isn't this like the reputation of the Liu clan?" he remarks. Inamura Eiichi takes this as a reference to the persecution of Lady Qi and her children by Empress Dowager Lu and her relatives after the death of Liu Bang (founder of the Han dynasty) and the revenge of the Liu family.38
Teika then summons the memory of Fan Wénzï íii3t^f , also known as Shi Xiè drü (Shih Hsieh; d. 574 b.c.), who was a general during the Zhou dynasty. The relevant episode is included in the historical chronicle Zuo zhuàn:
When Shih Hsieh returned from the Battle of Yen-ling, he ordered the invocator of his clan to offer up prayers for his death. 'Our ruler is arrogant and spendthrift and now he has defeated his enemies," he said. "Heaven is worsening the sickness that besets him. Trouble will surely follow. Those who love me would do well to pray for my speedy death, so I may not live to see the troubles. That would be a blessing to our clan."
In the sixth month, the day mou-ch'en, Shih Hsieh died.39
Although Teika would live to the age of eighty, he was already sixty-five years old and had suffered from various ailments all his life. In a previous entry, he speculated that he might die before he had the chance to copy out the Lotus Sütra again; in this entry, he welcomes the prospect of death as an escape from this corrupt world. With the allusions to Chinese history and his pessimistic view of contemporary times, Teika transforms a piece of gossip into a tragedy in miniature and a life lesson.
12th. Rain since last night, drizzling all day.
In his reply the Deputy Head Chamberlain [Nobumori] said that today was the anniversary of his mother's death and asked if someone else could be assigned. I sent another message, to the Deputy [Auditor] Tokikane. He replied that, due to exhaustion, he was not reporting for duty, so again I contacted the Deputy Head Chamberlain. Do officials dislike making reports to the Emperor these days?
Nobumori' s mother was the daughter of the official Otsuki no Hirofusa (n.d.). Taira no Tokikane (1163-1249) was a chamberlain and the second-highest official in the Auditor's Office (Kageyushi ...), an agency that verified financial records exchanged by incoming and outgoing provincial governors.40
13th. Gradually cleared in the morning.
In the Deputy Head Chamberlain [Nobumori]' s reply, he said that this matter would be reported to His Majesty soon. His reply was to [the administrator of the Ministry of Popular Affairs] Kunikane. [Lacuna B begins]
Around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.], while I was visiting the Kujö Lord, the Muderà Bishop stopped by, and we paid our respects together. I left before dusk, and while I was near the intersection of Konoe [Avenue] and Madenoköji [Street], the western sun was setting as the fresh moon rose. After I returned home, although the white moon was pure and brilliant, who would send a letter to an old man?
Late that night, the Minister [Michiie] sent me a poem. [Lacuna B ends]
In the afternoon, Teika paid a call on the current head of the Kujö family, Fujiwara no (Kujö) Michiie (1193-1252). Michiie held Senior Second Rank and had formerly served as Minister of the Left. He was the son of the late Kujö Yoshitsune (1169-1206). The Muderà Bishop is not identified, but might perhaps be Ryöson (1 1 89-1246), Michiie' s half-brother by a different mother. Konoe Avenue still exists; Madenoköji Street is now known as Yanagi-nobanba Street. The intersection is currently within the grounds of the Kyoto Imperial Palace.
In general, fragments removed from the Meigetsuki fall into two categories: passages that can be removed without disrupting the flow of the narrative (such as the correspondence that comprises Lacuna C, below) and passages that contain an emotional climax (such as the affecting episode recounted here in Lacuna B).
14th. Clear into the distance in the morning.
Around the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.] Shinjaku-bö came, and I told him again about pain in my left hand. He made marks at about three places below the shoulder and above the elbow, and put moxa on two of them.
Shinjaku-bö was a Buddhist monk and physician to Teika who attended him numerous times in Saga.
15th. Bright and sunny in the morning, light rain fell in the evening.
Another drought recently. They say the well has dried up. Nothing wets the ground except dew.
This morning, because it was an auspicious day for a sütra offering service and [chanting] the name [of the buddha Amitäbha], we sent to Nishi Kujö, where they are in the intermediary period, a painting of Amitäbha, a copy of the Lotus Sütra, some silk thread to use as payment (one hiki, four jö). In addition, for the two invited priests, three bundles (of tanzaku), for the sütra reciter, one bundle. As custom dictated, I sent a letter via my daughter to the nun Sanjö, daughter of the wet nurse (the wet nurse of the late Second-Ranker).
Around the hour of the Snake [9-1 1 a.m.] there was an answer (relaying a message from the lay monk [the widowed husband]). Although it was infinitely tedious, I wrote that it was what we had on hand, and decided to send the items. A poor household has no other options. Won't people certainly make fun of me?
Was yesterday the thirty-fifth day? (In his reply the lay monk said that the mourning family regarded this as a great honor.)
For the past two or three days I have had so much time on my hands that I replanted some trees in the garden.
The foster mother of Teika' s first wife had died on the ninth day of the previous month (about thirty-five days earlier), at the age of 88. In Buddhism, it is believed that there was an intermediary period (J. chüin ... Skt. Antaräbhava) between death and reincarnation that lasted a maximum of forty-nine days.
Teika held a memorial service in which participants copy sutras and offer them to the Buddha. (According to an almanac, it was an auspicious day for all things, especially Buddhist ceremonies.41) A copy of the Lotus Sütra (perhaps the one Teika had recently completed himself?) was sent to the mother's former residence at Nishi Kujö, which was likely located in the southwestern part of the city. In addition to the sütra, he sent a painting of Amitäbha, the Buddha of the Western Paradise who welcomed the deceased into the Pure Land, and about forty feet of thread. The woman's relatives would be able to use the thread to make various offerings to Buddhist monks for their own services. To the monks who came to Teika' s house to conduct the sütra offering ceremony, Teika gave bundles of tanzaku ... narrow, long strips of stiff paper used for inscribing poems.
The nun Sanjö and her former charge are unidentified. Wet nurses had a very close relationship to the children they cared for, and this bond also existed between the wet nurse's biological children and their charges. The woman referred to, a lady-in-waiting, was in a sense a sister of the deceased.
Teika was at this point estranged from his first wife, but still had contact with their children, such as his son Jöshö-bö, whom he dissuaded from visiting Tennöji in the passage above. His marriage to his second wife advanced his career significantly. Despite his rise in status, Teika laments not having enough money for proper gifts.
16th. (Light) rain since last night, stopped after the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.], cloudy the rest of the day.
Put moxa on my shoulder today.
17th. Still cloudy in the morning.
The lay monk Tadahiro came by today and I told him to pay for the lot to the south that belongs to the old woman and to take possession of it. He told me that half the price had already been paid.
At dusk I went to the residence of the Prime Minister. Had a quiet visit with him. When the moon rose I went home. Heard that the day after tomorrow Lord Kujö will go to the Eastern Palace.
According to rumors, the Ministers of the Left and Right will resign, and each will be appointed a Senior Counselor. Lord Ieyoshi ardently covets the post of Lord Masachika, and three Counselors will be promoted, they say. In this latter age, the term of officials is [as short as] the striking of a spark.
The Inspector was gorgeously overdressed today. He said he is going to Tennöji temple to take orders. The desires of this world are sudden. My impoverished, aged self lags behind and my shame increases.
Teika made arrangements for the purpose of expanding his lot at Kyögoku; the transaction would be completed at the end of the month. He had purchased adjoining lots on 4.24 and 11.15 of the previous year.
In the evening he visited Fujiwara no (Saionji) Kintsune (1171-1244), Junior First Rank, the former Prime Minister, and picked up some gossip. Lord Kujö is Michiie, who had kindly sent Teika a poem after his visit on the thirteenth. Michiie and his father-in-law, Kintsune, lived in adjacent compounds facing Ichijö Avenue; Michiie' s was the Eastern Palace, Kintsune' s the Western Palace.42
The current Minister of the Left was Fujiwara no (Tokudaiji) Kintsugu (1175-1227); the Minister of the Right was Fujiwara no (Öimikado) Morotsune (1175-1259). Neither minister immediately left office; in the following year Kintsugu died, and Morotsune resigned. They were replaced by members of the Kujö family. Morotsune was not appointed Senior Counselor after he resigned.
Fujiwara no (Kinugasa) Ieyoshi (1192-1264) held Senior Second Rank and the post of Counselor. He was a student of Teika' s . Minamoto no Masachika occupied an office just above Ieyoshi' s, that of Supernumerary Senior Counselor. He was the younger brother of the beleaguered nun mentioned in the entry for the eleventh day.
The post of Inspector (azechi ...) originally entailed traveling to inspect the provinces, especially in the north, but by this time it was an honorary office. It was held by Fujiwara no (Shijö) Takahira (1172-1255), Senior Second Rank, former Supernumerary Senior Counselor.
Teika would not take holy orders himself until seven years later. It is clear from this entry that he was aware that becoming a monk was the proper thing to do at his advanced age, but found it difficult to give up secular life.
Around the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.], the Adviser [Tameie] paid me a visit. He has been taking garlic for seven days; he does not use any during the Five Festivals.
The Five Festivals were held each year on 1/1, 3/3, 5/5, 7/7, and 9/9. The most recent, the Chrysanthemum Festival, had occurred on 9/9. Tameie would have been unable to visit court if he had been taking garlic.
[Lacuna C begins]
The Assistant Head Chamberlain's [Nobumori] relay said:
Regarding the matter of whether documents in the Ministry's archives have been lost, I have been directed to relay an order that the Ministry should conduct an inquiry and make a report.
Moreover, the Office of the Secretary has been consulted and states as follows. Regarding the matter of security, this is something that requires discussion. For the time being, it has been ordered that junior officials of the ministry in particular should stay at the ministry overnight.
Supernumerary Deputy Commander of the Right Gate Guards
To: His Lordship the Minister of Popular Affairs [Teika]
The third and longest lacuna is a collection of letters and remarks regarding the break-in at Teika' s ministry.
The first letter is a relay (hösho ...), a type of document in which the writer relays an order given by his superior to a third party. It is a reply to an earlier letter by Teika in which he apparently asked two questions: first, whether the Ministry of Popular Affairs should inspect its own archives and determine what had been lost, or another government agency would perform the inspection; and, second, whether the central government could provide security for the archives to prevent another break-in and further losses.
In reply, Nobumori transmits orders for Teika' s ministry to perform the inspection itself. Teika had earlier recorded a remark to one of his subordinates that he expected that there would be an outside investigation. Of course an internal investigation presents a conflict of interest, but the decision appears consistent with what Teika regarded as a pattern of laxity in administration.
As for providing security, Nobumori had consulted with the Office of the Secretary (Dajökan köchö ...), which was staffed by secretaries to the Council of State, the highest policy-making body.
The date of the letter, Karoku 2.9.24, is unusual insofar as the letter bears a date after the date of the entry itself. Since the original is not extant, we must rely on copies; both the Kokusho Kankökai edition and the Tokudaiji copy clearly give the day as the twenty-fourth. We know that Teika wrote out the Meigetsuki often using the backs of old letters for paper, and that these letters were not chosen at random but often have some connection to the diary entries; that is, they were in a sense, part of the diary. From this entry it is clear that Teika had letters in front of him while he was copying out this portion of the diary, and either included the text of a letter that he had not actually received by the date of the entry, or miscopied the date of the letter.
1. Regarding the inspection of the documents in the archives of the Ministry of Popular Affairs and the question of security:
With regard to the aforementioned inspection, should it not be conducted by the Ministry? With regard to the matter of security, under the new system [introduced] last year, there were no orders given regarding this Ministry. In light of the circumstances perhaps should there not be a decision?
2. Regarding the expenses for the construction of the S hö Hachimangu Shrine, for generations, it has been ordered that the private and public estates in the three provinces of Hyüga, Ösumi, and Satsuma [would pay them]. Moreover, the list appended to an imperial directive issued in Bunji 5  reports this.
I have already spoken to you about these two items thus.
9.14 Senior Assistant to the Controller of the Left
Ozuki no Suetsugu
The second letter is a reply to Teika from Ozuki no Suetsugu (1192-1244), who held Junior Fifth Rank, upper grade. By this time, the post he held had become the hereditary property of the Ozuki family. Lower-level courtiers like Suetsugu did most of the actual administrative work of the civil government.
In the letter Suetsugu suggests that Teika conduct his own investigation, and seems amenable to the idea of providing better security. The second item is not pertinent to the matter of the Ministry's archives. The Shö Hachimangu Shrine was located in Ösumi Province (the eastern part of present-day Kagoshima Prefecture); it is now called Kagoshima Shrine. It periodically burned down and had to be rebuilt. The imperial directive mentioned is not included in Kamakura ibun ... a compendium of official documents from the period.43
Regarding the matter of whether documents belonging to the archives of this Ministry have been lost, I understand the orders that this Ministry should conduct an inquiry and make a report. Moreover, while a decision is being made regarding arrangements for security, junior officials of this ministry in particular should serve night duty. I am requesting a written directive.
9.18 Lord Minister of Popular Affairs Sadaie [Teika]
This is a letter from Teika confirming instructions that he has received orally, and asking to have them issued in writing. It is likely the letter that prompted the reply from Nobumori dated 9.24 and quoted above.
Some personal remarks:
Although there is no precedent for providing security, among the various offices only a few [archives] remain; are not the archives of this ministry then extremely important? There is only one lower-ranking official in this ministry, and although he has worked hard for some years, he cannot make much difference [by himself]. Wouldn't it be fair to order that arrangements be made [to provide security] ? [Lacuna C ends]
Finally, Teika states what he really thinks of the matter. He feels that his superiors place too little value on the importance of the archives, and should be providing the security that his understaffed ministry cannot.
Around noon, Dharma Eye Ninson stopped by to chat. After a while he went home.
Ninson was a priest affiliated with Ninnaji temple.
Went to Reizei at the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.]. Not long after, Bishü stopped by, and the Dharma Eye [Kakukan] visited again. I invited Lord Nag amas a and my student the Zen nun also came by. Around 1 p.m. we began renga. The first verse made reference to an activity. Ienaka and Yasushige participated. [Lacuna D begins] Such fun. By sunset we had finished a sequence of one hundred links and everyone went home. Rested a while before going home. Is this not an elegant pleasure for my demented old age?
Heard by letter that Lord Michitomo will preside and give the toast at the Go sechi festival. No other news. [Lacuna D ends]
This entry describes a very lively session of renga composition, and gives us an idea of how Teika was expending his literary energies at this stage of his life.
Bishü is Fujiwara no Nobuzane (1 176-ca. 1265), a nephew of Teika' s who was a courtier, painter, and poet; he is said to have written Ima monogatari ... (Contemporary Tales, ca. 1240). His nickname (which means "Bizen, Bitchü, and Bingo Provinces") refers to a previous term as a provincial governor.
The priest referred to by the term Dharma Eye is not identified in the text; it is preceded by the character read mata ... ('again, also'). Does it mean that Dharma Eye Ninson, who had visited the previous day, called again? Or does it mean that Dharma Eye Kakukan, who visits Teika so often that he rarely mentions him by name, joined them, in addition to Bishü? Because Teika mentions Ninson in the following entry by name, I assume that he meant Kakukan here.
They are joined by Tachibana no Nagamasa (n.d.), who appears to have been a retainer of the Saionji family.44 Also participating is an unnamed woman known as "the Zen nun." She was a familiar and cherished figure at Teika' s many renga gatherings and may have been Nobuzane' s sister.45 Teika was shaken by her early death in 1230. Because Teika also refers to his wife as "the Zen nun" in Meigetsuki, he differentiates this one with the appellation köshi ... . Köshi was originally associated with the concept of suki ... ('taste, elegance, eccentricity'), possibly via suki ... ('fondness, predilection'), but Teika uses it almost exclusively to refer to younger renga poets.46 Also present were Takashina no Ienaka (n.d.), who was living at Teika' s Reizei Avenue house and serving as his retainer, and Yasushige, whose identity is uncertain.47
Renga sessions were sometimes structured by selecting in advance a thematic category (fushimono ...). For example, if the category was trees, the author of the first verse was required to mention an example of it (e.g., "an oak tree"). This session begins with a verse about an activity (such as making salt or gathering brushwood).
The Gosechi festival was a four-day series of ceremonies, banquets, and ceremonies held at the palace in the middle of the eleventh month; in this year it began on 11.14. On the second day there was a banquet with wine for courtiers. Minamoto no Michitomo is the magnanimous courtier who, in the entry for the eleventh day, took pity on his deserted relative, the widowed nun.
Around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.], I visited the Prince of the Third Rank (Kajii). The other day, Dharma Eye Ninson had mentioned His Highness' wish [to see me], so I went. I had an audience and then, toward the end of the hour of the Monkey [3-5 p.m.] withdrew. The Adviser [Tameie] came to see me.
Kajii is an area in present-day Kamigyö Ward, Kyoto City. The Buddhist temple Sanzenin, historically headed by an imperial prince, was located there. The current abbot was perhaps Cloistered Prince Sonkai (1204-46), seventh son of Emperor Go-Toba.48
Last night in my dream someone spoke to me. His Eminence the late archbishop [Jien] (Yoshimizu) had been appointed abbot [of the Tendai school] again. In my heart I was surprised. I heard him say, "Regarding the temples of Mount [Hiei], no action should be taken against the protests of the monks. They are just bringing forth what they have in the hearts from time to time. People say that this approach especially suits His Majesty, who is relieved, but, in my humble opinion, doesn't this approach suit the circumstances?" (I think that this was referring to the court before Jökyü, but at the time I heard that he had already resigned the abbacy.) This lingered in my mind.
The day before yesterday, Jöshü sent me a letter in which he expressed his unease and worries. Perhaps this [dream] means that he will enjoy someone's favor? If so, then he should wait. If it is not so, then he should not hesitate to go somewhere else. Secretly I thought this. I am writing it down because it is such an odd thought.
One of the Meigetsuki' § strengths is its impressive variety. It incorporates all sorts of information about high and low, from different sources, and it embraces both the mundane and the sublime, the bureaucratic and the personal. This entry is one of the most intriguing entries in the scroll, because Teika reveals part of his interior life, the dream is about a very famous historical figure, and we are given an explicit example of how Teika (and perhaps his contemporaries) interpreted dreams.
The archbishop was Jien (also known as Jichin, 1155-1225), younger brother of the former regent Kujö Kanezane and uncle of the late Yoshitsune. He was an accomplished cleric, poet, and historian.49 Jien had been a close friend of Teika' s and had just died the previous year.
Yoshimizu was an area in the eastern hills of Kyoto where Jien had lived at the Daisen höin monastery after his first term as Tendai abbot. During his lifetime Jien served four terms as head of the Tendai school. His final term was from 1213 to 1214; the Jökyu era began in 1219. Teika' s dream alludes to the frequent protests lodged against the court by Buddhist monks from Mount Hiei, who would descend into the capital bearing a portable shrine (mikoshi ...), leave the shrine at a busy intersection, and refuse to move it until their demands were met. (No one else would dare touch it for fear of divine retribution.) These protests vexed the court and put Jien, who was theoretically in charge of the priests but also a close relative of the regent, in a difficult position. In Teika' s dream, Jien proposes a laissez-faire policy to an unnamed emperor, which is received favorably.
The dream would have served solely as a pleasant remembrance of an old departed friend had Teika' s own son Jöshü (n.d.), a monk, not been starving at that very moment on Mount Hiei. He had been staying with Teika in the sixth month due to a lack of food at his temple, and returned to Hiei on 6.11. Teika wrote in his diary that day, "Will it be Mount Shouyang?" alluding to the story of the ancient Chinese exiles Bo Yi and Shu Qi, who died of hunger on the mountain.50
Visited the Muromachi Palace around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.]. [Lord Michiie] was having an audience with a Counselor (who was dressed in formal attire). Paid a call although I had no particular business. (It had been quite some time.) Inside the north central gate, I saw His Lordship's oxen and was just about to head for the Western Palace when [His Lordship] went there. Immediately I took my leave. The dysentery that has afflicted Ky ö Nii is serious and she has gotten even weaker, but they say there is nothing that can be done.
Although much of the information Teika gleaned from Kintsune in his visit on the seventeenth proved incorrect, it does appear that Kujö Michiie moved to his Eastern Palace, also known as the Muromachi Palace. The Counselor is unidentified. Teika was on his way to see Kintsune, who lived next door, when he saw that Michiie was headed to Kintsune's palace, and decided to go home instead.
Kyö Nii was the sobriquet of Fujiwara no Kenshi (also called Kyö no tsubone, 11551229). She had been Emperor Go-Toba's wet nurse and came to wield a great deal of influence over political matters, especially court appointments. In the post-Jökyü order, she had considerably less power.
22nd. Cloudy in the morning, cleared after the hour of the Dragon [7-9 a.m.].
Around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.], the Dharma Eye came to visit. While we were chatting, Nöshü also stopped by. Everyone's interest in renga is due to its elegant pleasures. Around the hour of the Monkey [3-5 p.m.], everyone went home. Stayed the night at the Lay Monk [Tadahiro]' s home.
The Dharma Eye is probably Kakukan, glossed above. Nöshü is a nickname for Tachibana no Nagamasa, who appeared earlier in the entry for the nineteenth day. It means "Noto Province," where Nagamasa had once served as governor.
Came home at daybreak. In the evening I received a message from the Taira Adviser. He had duty for the Gosechi festival, and I should send him records from previous years. For some days he has been in seclusion, taking therapeutic baths.
The Taira Adviser is Taira no Tsunetaka (1179-1255). Teika had become known not only for his skill at composing waka, but also for his extensive knowledge of court protocol and ceremony, which stemmed in large measure from his deep archive of early texts.
Sent the records of the Go sechi (from when Lords Kinnobu and Kunimichi personally [officiated]). My messenger returned empty-handed [without delivering the message], said that [Tsunetaka] is living at Iwakura.
Teika chooses records from two separate Gosechi festivals, one held some two centuries earlier, the other from recent times. The presiding nobles were, respectively, Fujiwara no Kinnobu (970-1026) and Fujiwara no Kunimichi (1176-1259). Iwakura is a rural area north of Kyoto.
Around the hour of the Monkey [3-5 p.m.], visited the Muromachi Palace. His Grace the bishop was present. We had an audience together. After [His Lordship] left, I went to the Western Palace and had a quiet visit. Went home around the hour of the Dog [7-9 p.m.].
Teika visits Kujö Michiie again at his Muromachi Palace. The bishop is unidentified. After seeing Michiie, Teika heads next door to pay a call on Kintsune, whom he had been unable to visit on the twenty-first.
We have had a drought for a long time. Heard there is no water in any of the wells.
Early this morning Nöshü came by for a chat and showed me thirty waka. Told him they were especially good. He was delighted and went home. He has been a student of mine for many years. I burned moxa, which hurt. Did not go out.
Arond noon, while the Adviser [Tameie] was here, the Minister passed by the gate of my home. His retainers et al. spotted me and so he invited me into his carriage.
After that, the lady-in-waiting et al. went to Reizei for baths, as there is no water at this house.
Heard that Shümeimon'in will move out of the Madenoköji Palace. Don't know why.
The Minister is Kujö Michiie. The lady-in-waiting is Teika' s daughter Inshi, glossed in the entry for the 4th. Teika' s house on Reizei Street (now pronounced Reisen) was located east of Higashi-no-töin Avenue.
Shümeimon'in (1182-1264) was an empress of Retired Emperor Go-Toba and mother of Retired Emperor Juntoku, both of whom were in exile at the time. She had become a nun after the Jökyü Disorder. The following day was an auspicious day; another diary records that she moved to the Okazaki Palace, located in an area east of the capital with many notable temples.51 Madenoköji Palace was located at the intersection of Öimikado Avenue and Madenoköji Street, and had been used by Go-Toba and Juntoku. This move is perhaps precipitated by the recent promotion of Emperor Go-Horikawa's empresses.
28th. Cloudy in the morning, clear after the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.].
Today I had Morinobu bring over the baby girl. She will live in the west cottage. I have some concerns and she should not yet mix with others.
Around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.], the Dharma Eye came to visit. By command he recently visited His Lordship, who will construct a large pagoda at Kôya. (There will soon be an order as to whether the provinces will pay the expenses, or there be an allotment from appointment revenues.) I think this is a bold move. Heard that the monks must return to their cloisters. The matter was decided today and an edict will be issued tomorrow, he said. Heard secondhand that Lord Kiyonori (the lay monk) rode off in a hurry today.
Empress Shümeimon'in was not the only person moving on this auspicious day. One of Teika's maids had borne him a baby girl on 8.25. On this day Teika has the infant moved into the house of Morinobu (n.d.), one of his retainers, who lived in a cottage outside the western fence of Teika' s house on Kyögoku Avenue. 52 Teika still has not seen her; he would view her for the first time on 10.5 and for the last time, presumably, on 10.24, when a carriage would arrive from Ninnaji to take the girl, her mother, and another woman to the temple; Kakkan would confirm their safe arrival the following day.
Dharma Eye is, once again, probably Kakkan, and it is not unlikely that he and Teika discussed moving the girl and her mother on this visit. His Lordship (denka ...) is probably the regent Iezane, glossed above in the entry for the fourth day.
Monks on Mt. Köya and on Mt. Yoshino had been engaged in a dispute since the previous year. It was agreed that the court would settle the dispute, but the Yoshino monks refused to appear in the capital; the Köya monks abandoned their Great Pagoda and prepared to descend upon the capital in droves. Iezane' s gesture appears to be an attempt to placate them by agreeing to rebuild the pagoda.53
Fujiwara no Kiyonori was a close retainer of Go-Toba who had accompanied him into exile on the island of Oki. He had returned to the capital in order to collect information under the false pretense that his mother was ill.54
29th. Cloudy in the morning; after the hour of the Snake [9-11 a.m.], a light rain fell. From the hour of the Monkey [3-5 p.m.] it poured for a while.
Around the hour of the Monkey I went to Tadahiro's house at Reizei, as there was no water to bathe with, but abstained [from bathing] because today is gejiki day.
It was believed that every sixty days the spirit of the "goblin star" (a kind of meteor) descended to the lower world to eat. Bathing and other activities were prohibited on the day of gejiki ... which means literally 'descending to eat'.
30th. Heavy rain since last night; the sun appeared around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.], then it grew cloudy again. Suspended over the hills, the evening sun shone clear.
Bathed in the morning. The Adviser [Tameie] came by to chat around noon. He said he was headed to [the home of ] the Counselor (Lord Kunimichi) for the Eight Lectures. The heavy rains would likely be a nuisance. He said tomorrow he was to attend a ceremony in the emperor's absence. (Chikatoshi is to coordinate.)
Around the hour of the Sheep [1-3 p.m.] I went home.
During this very hot weather I forget about everything else and lie prostrate. After a little bit of cool air, my moxa, etc., felt excruciating again. Without realizing it, I have reached the end of autumn. Aimless old age is so sad and painful.
In the evening Tadahiro went to the southern lot and collected the deed. (It is the remainder of the lot I received last year.) Today I made payment for the old lady's deed and am taking ownership. At its western edge it is 3 jö 5 shaku [about 35 feet], and while that is not much, it is an important site for this lot. At the inside boundary it is 9 jö 5 shaku long [about 95 feet] from north to south. After doyö I shall put up an earthen, roofed wall. I will use this 3 jö as the site of a gate. I think I should like to erect the gate facing south.
Fujiwara no Kunimichi was glossed above in the entry for the twenty-fourth day. He had sponsored a Buddhist ceremony that comprised eight lectures on the eight chapters of the Lotus Sütra.55
The ceremony attended by Tameie is a banquet held at the court at the beginning of each season. Winter began the next day, the first day of the tenth month. Fujiwara no Chikatoshi is glossed above in the entry for the fourth day.
In this entry, Tadahiro consummates on Teika' s behalf the land purchase initiated on the seventeenth. Doyö ... was an eighteen-day period at the end of each season, during which digging was prohibited.
Getsumeisö ... [Sorimachi Shigeo]
Haido zösho ... [Donald F. and Mary Hyde]
1. The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Japan-United States Friendship Commission, the Northeast Asia Council of the Association for Asian Studies, and the Lili and Takashi Hori Endowment for Japanese Language and Literature, Department of Asian Languages and Literature, University of Washington. He thanks the staff of the Houghton Library at Harvard University and Ms. Anne Rose Kitagawa of Harvard University Art Museums for their assistance and Professors David R. Knechtges, Melissa McCormick, and members of the Meigetsuki research group, including Professors Kikuchi Hiroki and Kanechiku Nobuyuki, for advice and aid.
In English, the scholarly works that have most effectively used Meigetsuki are Edward Kamens, Utamakura, Allusion, and Intertextuality in Traditional Japanese Poetry (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1997) and Robert N. Huey, The Making of ShinkokinshU (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Asia Center, 2002).
2. Tsuji Hikosaburö, Fujiwara no Teika Meigetsuki no kenkyü (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Köbunkan, 1977), 51. This is the regental line, not the line descended from Teika' s grandson Nijö Tameuji (1222-86).
3. Teika' s son Tameie provides this information in a letter dated Bun'ei 10.7.24 (1273). See Satö Tsuneo, Fujiwara no Tameie kenkyü (Tokyo: Kasama Shoin, 2008), 1140.
4. The known extant portions are listed in Onoe Yösuke, "Meigetsuki genpon oyobi genpon dankan ichiran," in Meigetsuki kenkyü teiyö, ed. Meigetsuki kenkyükai (Tokyo: Yagi Shoten, 2006), 1-31.
5. Photographic facsimiles of the Reizei family Meigetsuki appear in Meigetsuki, ed. Reizei-ke Shiguretei bunko (Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha, 1993-2003), 5 vols. Other portions of the autograph version may be located using Onoe, "Meigetsuki genpon ichiran."
6. Meigetsuki, ed. Kokusho kankökai (Tokyo: Kokusho Kankökai, 1911; f?. 1969), vol. 1, 2.
7. Tominaga Mika, "Naikaku bunko shozö Meigetsuki ni tsuite," Meigetsuki kenkyü 3 (November, 1998): 81.
8. Meigetsuki: Tokudaiji-ke bon, ed. Onoe Yösuke (Tokyo: Yumani Shobö, 2004-6), 8 vols.
9. These two points are made by Fujimoto Köichi in his Meigetsuki: kansubon no sugata, Nihon no bijutsu 3: 454 (March, 2004): 55-80.
10. For more detail on the physical properties of the scroll, see Paul S. Atkins, "Amerika no 'Meigetsuki': Haabado daigaku Sakkuraa bijutsukan-zo Karoku 2-nen 9-gatsu maki," Meigetsuki kenkyü 10 (December, 2005): 167-69. Low-resolution images of the scroll are available online through the Harvard University Art Museums website: www.artmuseums.harvard.edu (accessed June 25, 2010; located using the accession number, 1977.203). A description and partial translation appear in John M. Rosenfield, Fumiko E. Cranston, and Edwin A. Cranston, The Courtly Tradition in Japanese Art and Literature: Selections from the Hofer and Hyde Collections (Cambridge, Mass.: Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, 1973), 151-53.
11. On the formation of the Hyde collection, see "Our Japanese Collection and Adventure" in Mary Hyde Eccles: A Miscellany of Her Essays and Addresses, ed. William Zachs (New York: The Grolier Club, 2002), 27785, and Shigeo Sorimachi, "Japanese Books and Manuscripts," tr. Tama Sorimachi, in Four Oaks Library, ed. Gabriel Austin (Somerville, N.J.: privately printed, 1967), 70-85.
12. Invoice dated October 9, 1963 from The Kobunso to Donald E Hyde in Mary Hyde Eccles Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard University (bMS Hyde 98 ).
13. The seventeen items donated by Mary Hyde to the Fogg Art Museum in 1974 are described in Fumiko E. Cranston, "Gifts from the Hyde Collection of Japanese Books and Manuscripts," Annual Report (Fogg Art Museum) 1974/1976 (1974-1976): 38-47. The ten items donated in 1977 were assigned object numbers 1977.202-12 and may be viewed through the Harvard University Art Museums online catalogue. It seems likely that if the other items had not been sold, they would have been bequeathed to Harvard with the rest of the Hyde collection. They appear in the auction catalogue, The Donald and Mary Hyde Collection of Japanese Books and Manuscripts (New York: Christie's, 1988).
14. The provenance is discussed in greater detail in Atkins, "Amerika no 'Meigetsuki,' " 176-79.
15. See Gomi Fumihiko, Meigetsuki no shiryögaku (Tokyo: Seishi Shuppan, 2000), 162-84, for an application of this approach.
16. Tsuji, Meigetsuki no kenkyü, 100-105. The album is now in the collection of the Seikadö Bunko Art Museum.
17. Paul S. Atkins, "The Harvard Meigetsuki," in The Artifact of Literature: Japanese Books, Manuscripts & illustrated Scrolls, ed. Suzuki Jun and Melissa McCormick (Tokyo: National Institute of Japanese Literature and National Institutes for the Humanities, 2009), 29-38.
18. It appears that the only direct treatment of Meigetsuki in English besides entries in reference works is Donald Keene's "Chronicle of the Bright Moon," in his Travelers of a Hundred Ages (New York: Henry Holt, 1989), 95-102.
19. A transcription appears in Atkins, "Amerika no 'Meigetsuki,' " 170-75.
20. Onoe, ta., Meigetsuki, vol. 5, 250-63.
21. Meigetsuki kenkyü teiyö, ed. Meigetsuki kenkyükai (Tokyo: Yagi Shoten, 2006); Meigetsuki kenkyü: kiroku to bungaku, nos. 1-12 (1996-2010); Inamura Eiichi, Kunchü Meigetsuki, 8 vols. (Matsue, Japan: Matsue Imai Shoten, 2002); Dai Nihon shiryö sögö DB (http://www.hi.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ships/; accessed November 10, 2009); Kugyö bunin, ed. Kuroita Katsumi and Kokushi taikei henshükai, 6 vols. (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Köbunkan, 1971), and Sonpi bunmyaku, 5 vols. (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Köbunkan, 1966-67).
22. Translations of chapter titles are from Leon Hurvitz, tr., Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1976).
23. "Meigetsuki (Kangi 2-nen 8-gatsu) o yomu," ed. Meigetsuki kenkyukai, Meigetsuki kenkyü 7 (December, 2002): 42-43.
24. See Murayama Shuichi, Fujiwara no Teika (Tokyo: Yoshikawa Köbunkan, 1962), 285-87.
25. For more details, see Tsuchiya Megumi, "Teika to Ninnaji Omuro," Meigetsuki kenkyu 1 (November, 1996): 90-103.
26. See entry for Karoku 2.8.29 in the Dai Nihon kokiroku edition of Minkeiki, the diary of Hirohashi Tsunemitsu (fl. 1226-68). Minkeiki (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1975), vol. 1, 35.
27. Entry for Karoku 2.7.29 in Dai Nihon shiryö, sec. 5, vol. 3, 305.
28. An entry in the Minkeiki for 8.29 says that Inaba Province was reassigned from Michimitsu to the empress Minkeiki, vol. 1, 35).
29. "Meigetsuki (Karoku 3-nen urü-3-gatsu) o yomu," ed. Meigetsuki kenkyükai, Meigetsuki kenkyü 3: 18, and "Meigetsuki (Kangi 2-nen 8-gatsu) o yomu," Meigetsuki kenkyü 7: 19.
30. Sütra titles and translations are from Earl Miner, Hiroko Odagiri, and Robert E. Morrell, The Princeton Companion to Classical Japanese Literature (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1985), 382, 384.
31. Minkeiki, vol. 1, 36.
32. Meigetsuki, ed. Tsuji Hikosaburö, vol. 1 (Tokyo: Zoku Gunsho Ruijü Kanseikai, 1971). Unfortunately, the remaining volumes were never completed.
33. Gomi, Meigetsuki no shiryögaku, 231-34.
34. See "Meigetsuki (Karoku 3-nen uru-3-gatsu) o yomu," (MK 3): 31a.
35. Meigetsuki entry for Antei 1.1.21 (1227).
36. Entry for Jogen 1.9.9 (1207) in Nakasuke oki, cited in Dai Nihon shiryo, sec. 4, vol. 9, 787.
37. Meigetsuki entries for Karoku 1.4.26 (1225) and Kangi 1.9.24 (1229).
38. Inamura, Kunchü Meigetsuki, vol. 4, 382, n. 1. He cites the ninth book of Shi ji ... "The Basic Annals of Empress Lu." See Burton Watson, tr., Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, rev. ed. (Hong Kong: Renditions/Columbia Univ. Press, 1993), 267-84.
39. Burton Watson, tr., The Tso Chuan: Selections from China's Oldest Narrative History (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1989), 137-38.
40. See the entry in Kur ödo bunin for Karoku 2 in Gunsho ruijü, vol. 3 (Tokyo: Keizai Zasshisha, 1893), 201.
41. See the Dai Nihon kokiroku edition of Inokuma kanpakuki, the diary of Fujiwara no (Konoe) Iezane, vol. 6 (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1983), 28.
42. "Meigetsuki (Karoku 3-nen urû-3-gatsu) o yomu," Meigetsuki kenkyü 3: 15.
43. Takeuchi Rizö, ed., Kamakura ibun, 42 vols. (Tokyo: Tökyödö Shuppan, 1971-91).
44. See Tabuchi Kumiko, Chusei shoki kajin no kenkyu (Tokyo: Kasama Shoin, 2001), 228-30.
45. See ibid., 227.
46. On the meaning of the term köshi ... in Meigetsuki during this period, see ibid., 232.
47. See "Meigetsuki (Karoku 3-nen 3-gatsu) o yomu," Meigetsuki kenkyûkai, ed., Meigetsuki kenkyü 2 (November, 1997): 30 and "Meigetsuki (Karoku 3-nen urü-3-gatsu) o yomu," Meigetsuki kenkyü 3: 35, respectively.
48. Dai Nihon shiryö, sec. 5, vol. 3, 530.
49. Jien wrote Gukanshö (A Selection of My Foolish Views), the earliest Japanese historiographical work. See Delmer Myers Brown and Ichiro Ishida, The Future and the Past: A Study and Translation of the Gukanshö, An Interpretative History of Japan Written in 1219 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1979).
50. See An Anthology of Chinese Literature: Beginnings to 1911, ed. and tr. Stephen Owen (New York: Norton, 1996), 142-44.
51. See Minkeiki, vol. 1, 44, for details of the move, and Inokuma kanpakuki, vol. 6, 31, for the calendrical designation.
52. "Meigetsuki (Karoku 3-nen urü-3-gatsu) o yomu," Meigetsuki kenkyü 3: 7.
53. See Dai Nihon shiryö, sec. 5, vol. 3, 345-52, for further details.
54. See Tabuchi, Chüsei shoki kajin, 130-31.
55. See Willa Jane Tanabe, "The Lotus Lectures: Hokke hakko in the Heian Period," Monumenta Nipponica 39 (1984): 393-407.
PAUL S. ATKINS
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON