Latest articles from "Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri":

Modeling Processes of 4th-Year Middle-School Students and the Difficulties Encountered *(June 1, 2015)

Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Children's Loneliness Scale for Students with and without Special Needs in Inclusive Classrooms *(June 1, 2015)

The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect on the Relationship between Perceived Social Support and Stress in College Students(June 1, 2015)

Structural Equation Modeling Towards Online Learning Readiness, Academic Motivations, and Perceived Learning(June 1, 2015)

The Effect of Organizational Trust on the Culture of Teacher Leadership in Primary Schools(June 1, 2015)

Effects of Classroom Management Intervention Based on Teacher Training and Performance Feedback on Outcomes of Teacher-Student Dyads in Inclusive Classrooms *(June 1, 2015)

Comparing the Effectiveness of SPSS and EduG using Different Designs for Generalizability Theory(June 1, 2015)

Other interesting articles:

What Caused Airline Deregulation: Economists or Economics?
The Independent Review (January 1, 2015)

Secret Cult Menace in Nigeria within the Context of Social Structure and Political Economy: A Critical Analysis
International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences (July 1, 2014)

The Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation (January 1, 2012)

Cancer: Some genetic considerations
The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics (January 1, 2015)

Style, the Narrating Instance, and the "Trace" of Writing
Style (December 1, 2013)

Epistemological Analysis: Conflict and Resolution in Africa
The Journal of Pan African Studies (Online) (September 1, 2010)

Der Achämenidenhof
Journal of the American Oriental Society (July 1, 2014)

Publication: Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
Publication foreign language title: Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice
Date published:
Language: English
PMID: 67948
ISSN: 13030485
Journal code: KUEB

Researchers agree that there is a relationship between the receptive language skills of reading and listening (Basabas-Ikeguchi, 1988; Crain-Thoreson, 1992, 1996; Hagtvet, 2003; Kuperberg, 1975; Markert, 1974; Mullally, 1972; Perfetti, 1987; Rupley, Wilson & Logan 1995; Tuman, 1980; Wise, Sevcik, Morris, Lovett & Wolf, 2007). Some studies even suggest that this strong relationship during the early years of acquiring reading skills becomes increasingly stronger from grade 2 onwards as children gain mastery in word recognition and distinguishing (Crain-Thoreson, 1996; Diakidoy, Stylianou, Karefillidou & Papageorgiou, 2005).

It is important for a comparison of listening and reading comprehension processes that the relationship between listening and reading comprehension increase as word recognition becomes automatic, whereas the relationship between word recognition and reading comprehension decreases as grade level advances (Hudson, Pullen, Lane & Torgesen, 2009; Nichols, Rupley & Rasinki, 2009; Rasinski, Homan & Biggs, 2009; Young & Rasinski, 2009).

Researchers have put forward various postulations about providing the right stimuli for reading and listening comprehension skills. One such postulation is that since the linguistic stimuli required for comprehension is provided via audio and visual channels in these two language skills, the mental processes needed for reading and listening are independent of one another. Another postulation is that, regardless of the type of stimulation needed for comprehension, the basic characteristics of language are the same and thus the two skills have similar processes (Danks & End 1987; Horowitz & Samuels, 1987). Berg (1955) approaches the issue from a different perspective and emphasizes that listening and reading have common features and are the two basic subcategories of broader linguistic processes. According to this view, listening and reading are essentially similar processes, albeit in different stimulus forms, since they are both concerned with linguistic signs, idea exchange, comprehension difficulties, and involve thinking-related elements (cited in Pauline, 1983). Similarly, Sticht (1979) states that both skills use the same language system to process ideas, in other words, they share the same comprehension system. On the other hand, even though Samuels (1987) agrees that reading and listening comprehension have some similar elements, he argues that different processes are actually required for comprehension.

Starting from a review of previous studies, Stich et al. concluded that listening and reading involve the same general comprehension processes, and they further argue that listening comprehension level denotes reading comprehension potential, and thus it is the most important predictor of reading targets and competencies to be acquired. They also stated that listening and reading performances could be easily compared after the achievement of a certain level in word recognition and distinction (Stich & James, 1984). Another view on the issue has been that listening serves to improve reading and that listening skills may be used to hone reading skills (Aarnoutse, Brand-Gruwel & Oduber, 1997; Aarnoutse, Van Den Bos & Brand-Gruwel, 1998; Trinkle, 2008). Though listening comprehension is theoretically seen as an important part of reading models, it is also considered to be the basis of gaining and improving reading comprehension skills (Stich & James, 1984).

Another aspect of comprehension handled in this study is text types. In all models about comprehension, texts

are divided into two heading: informative and narrative texts (Weaver & Kintsch, 1991). Kintsch and Kozminki (1977) and Sinatra (1990) showed that listening and reading comprehension outcomes are affected by text difficulty and length. The more abstract and complex information usually given in informative texts and the various structures used in informative texts (Singer, Harkness & Stewart, 1997) mean that listeners and readers have more difficulties with informative text listening and reading than narrative texts. As grade level advances, pupils are expected to be exposed more often to informative texts and learn more from them. However, at the beginning of school, pupils have very little experience with these types of texts (Duke, 2000). Naturally, their listening and reading comprehension success are determined by unfamiliar structure, content, the frequency with which a given type of text is encountered, and the difficulty of text type at hand (Diakidoy et al., 2005).

Even though various studies about listening and reading comprehension exist in the literature outside of Turkey (Aarnoutse et al., 1997; Brand-Gruwel, Aarnoutse & Van Den Bos, 1998; Crain-Thoreson, 1996; Kintsch & Kozminki 1977; Roch & Levorato, 2009; Sinatra 1990; Tuman, 1980), only one study exists about the effects of text type on listening and reading comprehension to the best of our knowledge (Diakidoy et al, 2005). A survey of the literature in Turkey, on the other hand, yields no previous study which examines pupils' listening and reading comprehension levels together. Therefore, the need for this study was born.


The study was conducted on a total of 180 fifth-graders in the six classrooms of a public primary school in Sincan, Ankara during the spring semester of 2008-2009 school year. Convenience sampling was used in this research. In convenience sampling, the researcher selects participants because they are willing and available to be studied (Cresswell, 2005), so this study was conducted in a school where one of the researchers (second author) has been working as an elementary school teacher. Because of this, the researchers were provided more help by the school staff. The researcher was able to collect necessaray data in a short time. The age range of pupils was 11-12 years. Of these, 85 were girls and 95 were boys. In selecting the classes, first semester Turkish grades in pupils' reports were examined and six classes that had similar arithmetic means were selected. This criterion was an important factor in class selection. Three of these classes were further selected through random sampling for informative and narrative text listening comprehension tests, and the other three were given informative and narrative text reading comprehension tests. For the comprehension tests, an informative and a narrative text were selected first, followed by the identification of common attainments covering listening and reading comprehension skills (Milli Egitim Bakanligi [MEB], 2005), and then both texts were scrutinized for agreement with these attainments. Cohen Kappa agreement correlation coefficient was found to be approximately k= .70, indicating good inter-rater agreement (Sencan, 2005). The researchers preferred to use Cohen Kappa because there were two raters and Cohen Kappa measures the agreement between two raters. Cohan Kappa coefficient value also decreases chance factor in the agreement between raters (Cohen, 1960). KR 20 reliability coefficient was .80. In the three classes selected to identify pupils' listening comprehension levels, the narrative and informative texts were read once according to prosodic features of the texts by the researchers, and no second reading or repetition was used. Prosodic reading refers to intonation, stress, pause, and punctuation that contribute to expressive reading of text (Yildirim, Yildiz, Ates & Cetinkaya, 2009).

The reading of the two texts took approximately five minutes. Later, pupils were asked to answer the comprehension test distributed to them. In order to identify pupils' reading comprehension levels in the other three classes, pupils were told to carefully read the narrative and informative texts once. When they finished reading, the texts were taken from them and comprehension tests were distributed to be answered. Necessary analyses were made in line with the data obtained.


In order to better understand the data obtained, the study should be approached from two main perspectives. The first one is about listening and reading skills which are also known as receptive skills among basic language skills; and the other one is about text types which are narrative and informative. While some of the pupils in the sample read informative and narrative type texts individually, the rest listened to the same texts as they were read to them in normal speech speed. In this study, the effects of presenting different type texts via different channels on the comprehension levels of pupils were compared.

The results with respect to listening and reading skills showed that while listening emerged in narrative texts as a more effective method than reading, this was not the case in informative texts. It was found that in the comprehension of informative texts, there was no difference between listening and reading as a source of comprehension. With respect to text types, it was found that pupils understood narrative texts better than informative ones, be it through listening or reading. The parallelism between pupils' narrative and informative text comprehension achievement in both listening and reading and their Turkish grades in their reports reveals that success in receptive language skills increased success in the Turkish course. Below, the results of the study are discussed with respect to the relationships between receptive language skills (listening-reading), text types and academic success in Turkish.

Özbay (2005) argues that listening is the basis for all other language skills and the only comprehension skill practiced before school. Akyol (2006), on the other hand, states that children have some knowledge, albeit small, about the concept of stories starting from preschool. According to this, narrative texts are the only text type children encounter in the preschool period, and this happens through listening. In other words, children's schema about the text is "narrative text", and their schema about the source of comprehension is listening. Children can only improve their reading schemas after they learn how to read within the process of formal education, and researchers seem to believe that listening contributes to the development of reading or listening skills may be used to improve reading skills (Aarnoutse et al., 1997; Aarnoutse et al., 1998; Trinkle, 2008). Although researchers agree that there is a relationship between the receptive language skills of reading and listening, there is no consensus as of yet about the mental processes required by these two skills. As seen in the previous parts, the main reason behind these differences in people's views is the variety in the (audio-visual) stimuli needed for word recognition and distinction processes and comprehension. Another issue overlooked in these debates and may contribute to the understanding of the results obtained here is that the factors which affect listening and reading comprehension should be examined with respect to their relations with comprehension.

Samuels (1987) divides the factors that affect listening and reading comprehension into two as internal and external factors. While certain factors may be common for the two skills (listening-reading), each skill also has unique factors. Internal factors are related with the pupil while external factors are related with the presentation channels of the message. In other words, while elements such as intelligence, individual language skills, background knowledge and schema about the topic, motivation and upper cognitive strategies are known as internal-shared factors, elements such as listener awareness of speech sounds and the effects of context for listening and instructional language, analysis skills and visual literacy for reading are known as unshared internal factors. Clarity in speech and clarity in writing style, topic of speech and topic of text are the external factors of comprehension. Effectiveness of a speaker, awareness of listener needs and the context are the external factors that affect listening comprehension, while the quality of instruction, tendencies of the writer, text readability, design, structural elements of the text and time are those that affect reading comprehension. The difference not seen in informative texts but existing in narrative texts in favor of listening may be explained by pupils' schemas related to stories and listening. The experience of pupils in listening and stories may have made their schemas in these stronger than their schemas in reading and informative texts.

In this study, text type appeared to be an important factor affecting comprehension. Although the better understanding of narrative texts may be related more to language acquisition (Graesser, Golding & Long, 1991), the understanding of informative texts relies more on formal education (Lehto & Anttila, 2003). Indeed, children only encounter informative texts after learning to read and then throughout their school years. Thus, reading as a new source of comprehension and informative texts as a new text type are important new schemas for children which require a lot more work. Even though pupils also encounter narrative texts after starting school, at almost every grade level and in almost every theme (Akyol, 2006; MEB, 2005), informative text types and studies in recognizing and understanding them increase with grade level. Diakidoy et al. (2005) conducted a study at different grade levels and found that second graders were better at comprehending an oral narrative text than fourth and sixth graders but worse at it than eighth graders. They attributed this difference to the frequency of different text types in different grade levels.

In various studies where text type was studies in relation to listening comprehension, reading comprehension and listening and reading comprehension together, similar results to the present study were obtained. For instance, Lehto and Anttila (2003) studied second, fourth and sixth graders and found that oral narrative texts were understood better than oral informative texts at all grade levels. Yildiz (2008) concluded that fifth graders were much better at narrative text comprehension than informative text comprehension. Sidekli and Buluç (2006) also studied and fifth graders and Temizyürek (2008) studied eighth graders to reach the conclusion that pupils understood oral narrative texts better than they did oral informative texts. Likewise, Diakidoy et al. (2003) showed that second, fourth, sixth and eighth graders generally comprehended oral and written narrative texts better than informative texts. As can be seen, the results of previous studies suggest that narrative texts are better understood than informative texts regardless of grade level and the source of comprehension (listening-reading). These results may be attributed to language skills which affect both comprehension skills such as words and their order, and the background knowledge and schema of pupils about the texts they either hear or read. The difference may also have been due to the frequency that pupils encountered these text types, their schemas for both text types and structures (Graesser et al., 1991), and word and concept intensity stemming from the content of the informative texts. Saenz and Fuchs (2002) maintain that many factors may cause difficulties with pupils learning informative texts. The four factors that they mention are: text structure, conceptual intensity of text, familiarity with these, and word knowledge and background information.

Text structure shows how the ideas in the text are organized in transmitting a message (Weaver & Kintsch, 1991). The narrative text structure, which pupils are familiar with from preschool times, continue in the formal education process, almost unchanged. In contrast to these texts, informative texts come in a wide variety of structures. The literature shows that the main elements in narrative texts are the protagonist and side characters, setting, event (problem) and result (solution) (Garner & Bochna, 2004; Graesser et al., 1991). On the other hand, there is a number of informative text structures commonly agreed upon. While the literature holds different names for these, Blachowichz and Ogle (2008) and Wilhelm et al., (2007) list the six ways of informative text organization as: a) description, b) comparison and contrast, c) enumeration, d) problem solution, e) process definition, f) cause-effect. This variety in informative text structure, the conceptual intensity of this text type (Crowe, 2007; Singer et al., 1997) and the relative small number of familiar concepts when compared to narrative texts may be the reasons why listeners and readers have more difficulty with listening and reading informative texts. Also, this type of texts may include jargon or technical words, whose lack may present pupils with analysis and meaning-making problems (Armbruster & Nagy, 1992; Bryant, Ugel, Thompson & Hamff, 1999).


Even though the debate about the mental processes between reading and listening comprehension seems likely to continue, certain researchers claim that measuring listening comprehension is the best way to identify the discrepancy between pupils' current reading performance and their ideal reading level (Badian, 1999; Siegel, 1989; Spring & French, 1990). This would particularly help the identification of children with reading deficiency because their listening performance will be meaningfully higher than their reading performance in their age level. On the other hand, pupils with low reading and listening performance will be considered to have general cognitive or linguistic damage (Badian; Sticht & James, 1984). This approach relies on two assumptions: a) Listening comprehension tests show language competency. b) Listening comprehension process does not only have the same functions as reading comprehension process, but is also the basis of reading comprehension. According to these assumptions, if the reading comprehension of certain children in regular classrooms is weaker than their listening comprehension, listening is the more appropriate tool to measure their language comprehension performance (Carlisle & Felbinger, 1991). As a result, it may be argued that listening and reading should be used in conjunction to measure pupil competencies in receptive language skills. Even though readers who are not at a desired level of word recognition and distinction or beginner level readers may have difficulties with reading, they may not experience a similar difficulty with listening.

When text type and structure is considered, it may be recommended that pupils be with opportunities to practice strategies to be used in the process of reading and listening comprehension, common informative text structures (such as enumeration, definition, comparison-contrast, cause-effect), and strategies and clues to use when encountered with texts where the main idea is not clear (prosodic elements in speech and writing, bold, italic or bigger font size writing, etc.). Pressley (2000) emphasizes that most texts have a varied and complex structure and that teachers should teach the features of informative texts and strategies to facilitate the comprehension of such texts in order to develop pupils' schema. Blachowichz and Ogle (2008) state that gaining familiarity with the way ideas are organized is one way of uncovering meaning in a reading text. The structure of informative texts is different from that of narrative texts. It is harder for pupils who are not familiar with these informative texts organized in different ways to understand and make guesses about the organizational pattern. This makes it doubly important to teach and guide pupils in these topics (Crowe, 2007). Coyne et al., (2009) state that various strategies and direct instruction may be used to educate pupils in narrative and informative text structure, strategy use, activating background knowledge, word and comprehension strategies.


Aarnoutse, C., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Oduber, R. (1997). Improving reading comprehension strategies through listening. Educational Studies, 23, 209-227.

Aarnoutse, C., Van Den Bos, K.P., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (1998). Effects of listening comprehension training on listening and reading. The Journal of Special Education, 32, 115-126.

Akyol, H. (2006). Türkçe ilk okuma yazma ögretimi. Ankara: Pegem A Yayincilik.

Armbruster, B., & Nagy, W. E. (1992). Vocabulary in content area lessons. The Reading Teacher, 7, 550-551.

Badian, N. A. (1999). Reading disability defined as a discrepancy between listening and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study of stability, gender differences, and prevalence. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 32, 138-148.

Basabas-Ikeguchi, C. (1988). Analysis of reading and listening comprehension skills in different language environments. Unpublished master's thesis, Dokkye University, Japan.

Blachowichz, C., & Ogle, D. (2008). Reading comprehension strategies for independent learners. New York: The Guilford Press.

Brand-Gruwel, S., Aarnoutse, C. A. J., & Van Den Bos, K. P. (1998). Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings. Learning and Instruction, 8, 63-81. Bryant, D. P., Ugel, N., Thompson, S., & Hamff, A. (1999). Instructional strategies for content-area reading instruction. Intervention in School and Clinic, 34, 293-302.

Carlisle, J. F., & Felbinger, L. (1991). Profiles of listening and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 345-354.

Cohen J. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20, 37-46.

Coyne, M. D., Zipoli, Jr., Richard, P., Chard, D. J., Faggella-Luby, M., Ruby, M., et al., (2009). Direct Instruction of comprehension: Instructional examples from intervention research on listening and reading comprehension. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 25, 221-245.

Crain-Thoreson, C. (1992, April). From listening to reading: Phonological processes in comprehension. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco.

Crain-Thoreson, C. (1996). Phonemic processes in children's listening and reading comprehension. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10, 383-401.

Creswell, J. W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed). New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Crowe, D. E. (2007). Reading Comprehension Instruction in the Middle Grades for Students with Learning and Behavior Problems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Auburn University, USA.

Danks, J. H., & End, L. J. (1987). Processing strategies for reading and listening. In R. Horowitz, & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehension oral and written language (pp. 271-294). Boston: Academic Press.

Diakidoy, I. N., Stylianou, P., Karefillidou, C., & Papageorgiou, P. (2005). The relationship between listening and reading comprehension of different types of text at increasing grade levels. Reading Psychology, 26, 55-80.

Duke, N. K. (2000). 3.6 minutes per day: The scarcity of informal texts in first grade. Reading Research Quarterly, 35, 202-224.

Garner, J. K., & Bochna, C. R. (2004). Transfer of a listening comprehension strategy to independent reading in first-grade students. Early childhood Education Journal, 32, 69-74.

Graesser, A., Golding, J. M., & Long, D. L. (1991). Narrative representation and comprehension. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. MosenthaL, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 171-205). New York: Longman.

Hagtvet, B. E. (2003). Listening comprehension and reading comprehension in poor decoders: Evidence fort he importance of syntactic and semantic skills as well as phonological skills. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 16, 505-539

Horowitz, R., & Samuels, S. J. (1987). Comprehension oral and written language. London, Academic Press.

Hudson, R. F., Pullen, P. C., Lane, H. B., & Torgesen, J. K. (2009). The complex nature of reading fluency: A multidimensional view. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25, 4-32.

Milli Egitim Bakanligi [MEB]. (2005). Ilkögretim Türkçe dersi ögretim programi ve kilavuzu. Ankara: Yazar.

Kintsch, W., & Kozminski, E. (1977). Summarizing stories after reading and listening. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 491-499.

Kuperberg, A. (1975). Some relationships between listening comprehension and rate of presentation. Unpublished master's thesis, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey.

Lehto, E. J., & Anttila, M. (2003). Listening comprehension in primary level grades two, four and six. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47, 133-143.

Markert, S. J. (1974). Relationships between listening comprehension and reading comprehension among second-grades. Unpublished master's thesis, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey.

Mullally, L. J. (1972). Comprehension of a narrative passage by primary school children as a function of listening rate and reading comprehension level. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, Michigan.

Nichols, W. D., Rupley, W. H., & Rasinski, T. (2009). Fluency in learning to read for meaning: Going beyond the repeated readings. Literacy Research and Instruction, 48, 1-13.

Özbay, M. (2005). Bir dil becerisi olarak dinleme egitimi. Ankara: Akçag Yayinlari.

Pauline, A.T. (1983). A study of listening-reading scores of average and deficient readers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma.

Perfetti, C. A. (1987). Language, speech, and print: Some asymmetric in the acquisition of literacy. In R. Horowitz, & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 355-369). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 3, pp. 545-562). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rasinski, T., Homan, S., & Biggs, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers: Method, materials, and evidence. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25, 192-204.

Roch, M., & Levorato, M.C. (2009). Simple view reading in down's syndrome: The role of listening comprehension and reading skills. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 44, 206-223.

Rupley, W. H., Wilson, V. L., & Logan, J. W. (1995). Contributes of phonemic knowledge, prior knowledge, and listening comprehension to elementary-age children's reading comprehension. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study Reading, San Francisco.

Saenz, L. K., & Fuchs, L. S. (2002). Examining the reading difficulty of secondary students with learning disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 23, 31-41

Samuels, S. J. (1987). Factors that influence listening and reading comprehension. In R. Horowitz, & S. J. Samuels (Eds.), Comprehending oral and written language (pp. 295-325). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Sencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve davranissal ölçümlerde güvenirlik ve geçerlik. Ankara: Seçkin Yayincilik.

Sidekli, S., & Buluç, B. (2006, Nisan). Ilkögretim besinci sinif ögrencilerinin okudugunu anlama becerilerinin karsilastirilmasi. Ulusal Sinif Ögretmenligi Kongresinde sunulan bildiri, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Siegel, L. S. (1989). IQ is irrelevant to the definition of learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22, 469-486.

Sinatra, G. M. (1990). Convergence of listening and reading processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 25, 115-130.

Singer, M., Harkness, D., & Stewart, S. T. (1997). Constructing inferences in expository text comprehension. Discourse Processes, 24, 199-228.

Spring, C., & French, L. (1990). Identifying children with specific reading disabilities from listening and reading discrepancy scores. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 23, 53-58.

Sticht, T. G. (1979). Applications of the audread model to reading evaluation and instruction. In L. B. Resnick, & P. A. Weaver (Eds.), Theory and practice of early reading. (Vol. 1, pp. 209-226). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Sticht, T. G., & James, J. H. (1984). Listening and reading. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, & P. Mosenthal (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 124-147). New York: Longman.

Temizyürek, F. (2008). The impact of different types of texts on Turkish language reading comprehension at primary school grade eight. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 30, 141-152.

Trinkle, C. (2008). Listening comprehension leads to reading success. School Library Media Activities Monthly, 14, 43- 45.

Tuman, M. C. (1980). A Comparative review of reading and listening comprehension. Journal of Reading, 23, 698-724.

Weaver, C. A., & Kintsch, W. (1991). Expository text. In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 2, pp. 230-244). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Wilhelm, J. D., Fisher, D., Hinchman, K. A., O'Brien, D., Raphael, T., & Shanahan, C. H. (2007). Literature reading with purpose. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Companies.

Wise, J. C., Sevcik, R. A., Morris, R. D., Lovett, M. W., & Wolf, M. (2007). The relationship among receptive and expressive vocabulary, listening comprehension, pre-reading skills, word identification skills, and reading comprehension by children with reading disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 1093-1109.

Yildiz, M. (2008, Mayis). Ilkögretim besinci sinif ögrencilerinin dinledigini anlama düzeylerinin metin türleri bakimindan karsilastirilmasi. VII. Ulusal Sinif Ögretmenligi Egitimi Sempozyumunda sunulan bildiri. On Sekiz Mart Üniversitesi Çanakkale.

Young, C., & Rasinski, T. (2009). Implementing readers theatre as an approach to classroom fluency instruction. The Reading Teacher, 63, 4-13.

Yildirim, K., Yildiz, M., Ates, S., & Cetinkaya, C. (2009). Effect of prosodic reading on listening comprehension. World Applied Sciences Journal, 7, 744-747.

Author affiliation:

Kasim YILDIRIM*, Mustafa YILDIZ**, Seyit ATES***, Timothy RASINSKI****

* Kasim YILDIRIM, Kent State University, Department of Literacy Education, Visiting Scholar, U.S.A.

** Mustafa YILDIZ, 100. Yil Elementary School, Classroom Teacher, Ankara/TURKEY.

***Correspondence: Seyit ATES, PhD Condidate, Gazi University Faculty of Education, Department of Elementary Education 06500-Ankra/TURKEY.


****Prof. Timothy RASINSKI, Kent State University, Department of Literacy Education, U.S.A.

Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri / Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice

10 (3) Summer 2010 1879-1891

People who read this article also read:

TurkishEksternal dakriyosistorinostomi: Tek veya çift flep anastomozu/External dacryocystorhinostomy: Single flap or double flaps anastomosis
EnglishThe True Tragedy of American Power
EnglishCharacterization of anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in Nouakchott, Mauritania
EnglishAre ethics and private detention centres compatible?

The use of this website is subject to the following Terms of Use