Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on grain yield and protein banding pattern of wheat

In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of inorganic (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg Nitrogen ha^sup -1^) and organic (30 and 60 Mg municipal waste compost ha^sup -1^) fertilizers on wheat grain yield, gluten content, protein variability and protein banding pattern on polyacrylamide gel in different growth stages of irrigated wheat, a field experiment was conducted at research station of the School of Agriculture, Shiraz University at Bajgah in 2007. Results indicated that the highest wheat grain yield was achieved when the plants were fertilized with 160 kg N ha^sup -1^ and 30 Mg compost ha^sup -1^. Among yield components, spikes plant^sup -1^, seeds spike^sup -1^ and 1000 kernels weight were significantly increased with increasing the level of nitrogen. However, there was no significant difference between 160 and 240 kg N ha^sup -1^. There was no significant effect of N fertilization on seed protein and gluten content, however the highest amount of seed protein was obtained in 60 Mg compost ha ^sup -1^ at all levels of nitrogen. The SDS-PAGE was performed to investigate differences between proteins banding pattern in different growth stages under different levels of N and compost. Protein banding pattern showed no polymorphism in tillering and stem elongation stages. However, in ear emergence in 160 kg N ha^sup -1^ and in the all compost levels, density of a 50 kDa band was increased specifically in 60 Mg compost ha^sup -1^. Furthermore, seed water soluble proteins, Albumin and Globulin, showed no polymorphism. All in all, it is possible to obtain maximum grain yield, protein and gluten, just in 160 kg ha^sup -1^ nitrogen level. Thus, it shows the positive impact of compost application on reduction of chemical fertilizer use. Keyword: Compost, Gluten, Grain yield, Nitrogen fertilization, Protein, Wheat.

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