Author: Wagener, Pieter Cornelius
Date published: October 1, 2010
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)
In previous papers [1-5] we showed that a Lagrangian
m^sub 0^ = gravitational rest mass of a test body moving at velocity v in the vicinity of a massive, centralbody of mass M,
γ = ...,
R = 2GM /c^sup 2^ is the Schwarzschild radius of the central body.
gives rise to the following conservation equations:
E = mc^sup 2^e^sup R^/r = total energy = constant , (2)
L = e^sup R/r^M, (3)
L = magnitude of L = constant, (4)
L^sub z^ = ..., (5)
= z component of L = constant,
m = ..., (6)
is a variable gravitational mass and
M = (r × m^sub 0^v), (7)
is the total angular momentum of the test body. Eqs. (3) and (4) are amendments to the equations in the previous articles.
The above equations give rise to equations of motion that satisfy all tests for present gravitational phenomena.
2 Gravitational repulsion
Eq. (2) shows that gravitational repulsion occurs between bodies when their masses m are increased by converting radiation energy into mass. This conversion occurs according to the photoelectric effect,
This is the reverse of what occurs during nuclear fission.
In a previous paper [4, §3] we proposed that this accounts for the start of the Big Bang as well as the accelerating expansion of the universe. We now consider other effects.
2.1 Black holes
With black holes the reverse of repulsion occurs. According to (2) and (6) matter is converted into radiation energy (v [arrow right] c) as r [arrow right] O. Conversely, as radiation is converted into mass, matter should be expelled from a black hole. This phenomenon has been observed .
In this regard our model of a black hole differs from that of general relativity (GR) in that our model does not approach a mathematical singularity as r [arrow right] 0, whereas GR does approach one as r [arrow right] R.
2.2 Pair production
Fig. 1: A high-energy gamma ray passing near matter can create an electron-positron pair.
In pair production a gamma ray converts into a positron and an electron, with both particles moving away from one another. Pair production only occurs in the presence of a heavy mass. The explanation for the required presence of the mass is generally given in texts as:
The process as we have assumed it to occur is impossible. This is because energy and momentum cannot simultaneously be conserved in free space in this process. . . .
However, if the high-energy gamma ray passes near a very heavy particle, then the heavy particle can soak up all the momentum without carrying away a significant amount of energy [7, §5.6].
We aver that the explanation is contrived. The last sentence is too inexact for a rigorous mathematical formulation. Although we do not submit a formulation at this stage, we suggest that repulsion occurs between the particles and the heavy mass.
2.3 Laboratory demonstration
It should be possible to demonstrate gravitational repulsion in a laboratory. A suggestion on how to do this is provided by Jennison and Drinkwater , Their experiment was not designed to demonstrate gravitational repulsion, but to demonstrate how the properties of mass, or inertia, are simulated by phase-locked standing waves in a microwave transmitter/receiver system mounted on a frictionless air track. It should be possible to modify their experiment to show that gravitational repulsion would occur if the frequencies of the standing waves were increased. As a prototype we propose a modification of their experimental setup as depicted in Fig. 2. Two microwave transmitters/receivers lock a standing wave of frequency v near a large mass M. Increasing the frequency of the standing wave should push it away from M.
From (2) and (8) an increase of Δv will cause a separation of the microwave system from M equal to
where A, B are constants.
The repulsive effect can also be measured by a sensitive gravimeter placed between M and the standing wave system.
Setting up the above experiment could be cumbersome on a macro scale. The author is investigating demonstrating the repulsive effect at nano scales.
The success of the proposed theory to explain present gravitational phenomena supports the above proposal to demonstrate gravitational repulsion.
Submitted on April 28, 2010 / Accepted on May 17, 2010
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Pieter Cornelius Wagener
Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
E-mail: Pieter. Wagener@nmmu.ac.za