The Development and Validation of the Golf Self-Efficacy Scale

Individuals' beliefs and expectations about their performance have long been identified as critical to excellence in sport. In this context, in order assess self efficacy specific to golf, we collected data from 220 male participants in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Tournament regarding golf self efficacy, generalized self efficacy, psychomotor and psychological skills linked to golf, competitive anxiety, and information regarding problem areas in one's game and specific methods for improving one's golf performance. Analyses suggested the 12-item measure of golf self efficacy (GSES) to possess high internal consistency, to be unidimensional in nature, and to correlate with not only predicted Round 1 tournament performance, but also Tournament performance for 3 of 4 rounds. GSES scores were also reliably related to competitive anxiety, generalized self efficacy, self reported golf-specific psychological and psychomotor skills, and to both pre-round tension/anxiety and to individuals' predictions about their first round tournament performance. These findings suggest the GSES to be both reliable and valid, and therefore to be potentially useful in both research and teaching-related venues as they apply to amateur golfers.

© Journal of Sport Behavior Dec 2010. Provided by ProQuest LLC. All Rights Reserved.

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