Date published: February 1, 2011
Note 1. Natural Gas Production. Final annual data are from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Natural Gas Annual (NGA).
Data for the two most recent months presented are estimated. Some of the data for earlier months are also estimated or computed. For a discussion of computation and estimation procedures, see the EIA Natural Gas Monthly (NGM).
Monthly data are considered preliminaiy until after publication of the EIA NGA. Preliminaiy monthly data are gathered from reports to the Interstate Oil Compact Commission and the U.S. Minerals Management Service. Volumetric data are converted, as necessaiy, to a standard 14.73 psi pressure base. Unless there are major changes, data are not revised until after publication of the EIA NGA
Differences between annual data in the EIA NGA and the sum of preliminary monthly data (January-December) are allocated proportionally to the months to create final monthly data.
Note 2. Natural Gas Extraction Loss. Extraction loss is the reduction in volume of natural gas resulting from the removal of natural gas liquid constituents at natural gas processing plants.
Annual data are from the EIA NGA, where they are estimated on the basis of the type and quantity of liquid products extracted from the gas stream and the calculated volume of such products at standard conditions. For a detailed explanation of the calculations used to derive estimated extraction losses, see the EIA NGA.
Preliminary monthly data are estimated on the basis of extraction loss as an annual percentage of marketed production. This percentage is applied to each month's marketed production to estimate monthly extraction loss.
Monthly data are revised and considered final after the publication of the EIA NGA. Final monthly data are estimated by allocating annual extraction loss data to the months on the basis of total natural gas marketed production data from the EIA NGA.
Note 3. Supplemental Gaseous Fuels. Supplemental gaseous fuels are any substances that, introduced into or commingled with natural gas, increase the volume available for disposition. Such substances include, but are not limited to, propane-air, refinery gas, coke oven gas, still gas, manufactured gas, biomass gas, and air or inert gases added for Btu stabilization.
Annual data beginning with 1980 are from the EIA NGA. Unknown quantities of supplemental gaseous fuels are included in consumption data for 1979 and earlier years. Monthly data are considered preliminaiy until after the publication of the EIA NGA. Monthly estimates are based on the annual ratio of supplemental gaseous fuels to the sum of diy gas production, net imports, and net withdrawals from storage. The ratio is applied to the monthly sum of the three elements to compute a monthly supplemental gaseous fuels figure.
Although the total amount of supplemental gaseous fuels consumed is known for 1980 forward, the amount consumed by each energy-use sector is estimated by EIA. These estimates are used to create natural gas (without supplemental gaseous fuels) data for Tables 1.3, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, and 2.6 (note: to avoid double-counting in these tables, supplemental gaseous fuels are accounted for in their primary energy categoiy : "Coal," "Petroleum," or "Biomass"). It is assumed that supplemental gaseous fuels are commingled with natural gas consumed by the residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power sectors, but are not commingled with natural gas used for lease and plant fuel, pipelines and distribution, or vehicle fuel. The estimated consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels by each sector (residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power) is calculated as that sector's natural gas consumption (see Table 4.3) divided by the sum of natural gas consumption by the residential, commercial, other industrial, and electric power sectors (see Table 4.3), and then multiplied by total supplemental gaseous fuels consumption (see Table 4.1). For estimated sectoral consumption of supplemental gaseous fuels in Btu, the residential, commercial, and other industrial values in cubic feet are multiplied by the "End-Use Sectors" conversion factors (see Table A4), and the electric power values in cubic feet are multiplied by the "Electric Power Sectof ' conversion factors (see Table A4). Total supplemental gaseous fuels consumption in Btu is calculated as the sum of the Btu values for the sectors.
Note 4. Natural Gas Storage. Natural gas in storage at the end of a reporting period may not equal the quantity derived by adding or subtracting net injections or withdrawals from the quantity in storage at the end of the previous period. The difference is due to changes in the quantity of native gas included in the base gas and/or losses in base gas due to migration from storage reservoirs.
Total underground storage capacity at the end of each calendar year since 1975 (first year data were available), in billion cubic feet was:
Monthly underground storage data are collected from the Federal Energy Regulatoiy Commission Form FERC-8 (interstate data) and EIA Form EIA-191 (intrastate data). Beginning in Januaiy 1991, all data are collected on the revised Form EIA- 191. Injection and withdrawal data from the FERC8/EIA-191 survey are adjusted to correspond to data from Form EIA-176 following publication of the EIA NGA.
The final monthly and annual storage and withdrawal data for 1980-2009 include both underground and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage. Annual data on LNG additions and withdrawals are from Form EIA-176. Monthly data are estimated by computing the ratio of each month's underground storage additions and withdrawals to annual underground storage additions and withdrawals and applying the ratio to the annual LNG data.
Note 5. Natural Gas Balancing Item. The balancing item for natural gas represents the difference between the sum of the components of natural gas supply and the sum of components of natural gas disposition. The differences may be due to quantities lost or to the effects of data reporting problems. Reporting problems include differences due to the net result of conversions of flow data metered at varying temperature and pressure bases and converted to a standard temperature and pressure base; the effect of variations in company accounting and billing practices; differences between billing cycle and calendar period time frames; and imbalances resulting from the merger of data reporting systems that vary in scope, format, definitions, and type of respondents.
The increase of 0.2 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) in the "Balancing Item" category in 1983, followed by a decline of 0.5 Tcf in 1984, reflected unusually large differences resulting from the use of the annual billing cycle (essentially December 15 through the following December 14) consumption data in conjunction with calendar year supply data. Record cold temperatures during the last half of December 1983 resulted in a reported 0.3 Tcf increase in net withdrawals from underground storage for peak shaving as compared with the same period in 1982, but the effect of this cold weather was reflected primarily in 1984 consumption data. For underground storage data, see Table F2 in the May 1985 EIA NGM, which was published in July 1985.
Note 6. Natural Gas Consumption. Consumption includes use for lease and plant fuel, pipelines and distribution, vehicle fuel, and electric power plants, as well as deliveries to residential, commercial, and other industrial customers.
Final data for series other than "Other Industrial CHP" and "Electric Power Sector" are from the EIA NGA. Monthly data are considered preliminaiy until after publication of the EIA NGA. For more detailed information on the methods of estimating preliminaiy and final monthly data, see the EIA NGM.
Note 7. Natural Gas Consumption, 1989-1992. Prior to 1993, deliveries to nonutility generators were not separately collected from natural gas companies on Form EIA176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." As a result, for 1989 through 1992, those volumes are probably included in both the industrial and electric power sectors and double-counted in total consumption. In 1993, 0.28 trillion cubic feet was reported as delivered to nonutility generators.
Note 8. Natural Gas Data Adjustments, 1993-2000. For 1993-2000, the original data for natural gas delivered to industrial consumers (now "Other Industrial" in Table 4.3) included deliveries to both industrial users and independent power producers (IPPs). These data were adjusted to remove the estimated consumption at IPPs from "Other Industrial" and include it with electric utilities under "Electric Power Sector." (To estimate the monthly IPP consumption, the monthly pattern for Other Industrial CHP in Table 4.3 was used.)
For 1996-2000, monthly data for several natural gas series shown in EIA's Natural Gas Navigator (see http : //www . eia. gov/dnav/ng/ng_cons_sum_dcu_nus_m. htm) were not reconciled and updated to be consistent with the final annual data in EIA's Natural Gas Annual. In the Monthly Energy Review, monthly data for these series were adjusted so that the monthly data sum to the final annual values. The Table 4.1 data series (and years) that were adjusted are: Gross Withdrawals (1996, 1997), Marketed Production (1997), Extraction Loss (1997, 1998, 2000), Dry Gas Production (1996, 1997), Supplemental Gaseous Fuels (1997-2000), Balancing Item (1997-2000), and Total Consumption (1997-2000). The Table 4.3 data series (and years) that were adjusted are: Lease and Plant Fuel (1997-2000), Total Industrial (1997-2000), Pipelines and Distribution (2000), Total Transportation (2000), and Total Consumption (1997-2000).
Note 9. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. The United States imports natural gas via pipeline from Canada and Mexico; and imports liquefied natural gas (LNG) via tanker from Algeria, Australia, Brunei, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Peru, Qatar, Trinidad and Tobago, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. In addition, veiy small amounts of LNG arrived from Canada in 1973 (667 million cubic feet), 1977 (572 million cubic feet), and 1981 (6 million cubic feet). The United States exports natural gas via pipeline to Canada and Mexico; and exports LNG via tanker to Brazil, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Spain, and United Kingdom. Also, small amounts of LNG have gone to Mexico since 1998.
Annual and final monthly data are from the annual EIA Form FPC-14, "Annual Report for Importers and Exporters of Natural Gas," which requires data to be reported by month for the calendar year.
Preliminaiy monthly data are EIA estimates. For a discussion of estimation procedures, see the EIA NGM. Preliminaiy data are revised after the publication of the EIA U.S. Imports and Exports of Natural Gas.