Latest articles from "Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri":

The Effect of Organizational Trust on the Culture of Teacher Leadership in Primary Schools(June 1, 2015)

Content Analysis of the Studies in Turkey on the Ability of Critical Thinking(June 1, 2015)

The Relationship between Teachers' Motivational Support and Engagement versus Disaffection(June 1, 2015)

Implementation of a Performance Task for Developing the Value of Love of Nature(June 1, 2015)

Effects of Classroom Management Intervention Based on Teacher Training and Performance Feedback on Outcomes of Teacher-Student Dyads in Inclusive Classrooms *(June 1, 2015)

Comparing the Effectiveness of SPSS and EduG using Different Designs for Generalizability Theory(June 1, 2015)

Modeling Processes of 4th-Year Middle-School Students and the Difficulties Encountered *(June 1, 2015)

Other interesting articles:

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected species of Plantago with emphasis on Plantago ovata
Australian Journal of Crop Science (December 1, 2014)

The Review of Metaphysics (June 1, 2015)

Target frames in British hotel websites 1
International Journal of English Studies (January 1, 2015)

Readers write
Canadian Mennonite (July 8, 2013)

Fathering (October 1, 2011)

Complexity Leadership: New Conceptions for Dealing with Soldier Suicides
Military Review (January 1, 2011)

Climbing without the energy ladder: Limitations of rural energy development for forest conservation
Rural Society (June 1, 2011)

Publication: Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
Publication foreign language title: Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice
Author: Sahin, Semiha
Date published: October 1, 2011
Language: English
PMID: 67948
ISSN: 13030485
Journal code: KUEB

Instructional leadership is unique to the field of education and it differs from other types of leaderships because it is related to students, teachers, curricula and learning-teaching processes (Gümüseli, 1996b). The critical role of "being instructional leader" played by the principals affects teaching and student achievement (Blasé & Blasé', 1999, 2000, 2004; Deal & Peterson, 1998; Hallinger & Murphy, 1985; Hart & Bredeson, 1996; Hoy & Hoy, 2003; Gümüseli, 2001; Leithwood, Jantzi, & Steinbach, 1999; Özden 1998; Weber, 1996; Whitaker, 1997). Çelik (1999), Hoy and Hoy (2003) and Sisman (2004) argue that the main aim of schools is to teach, which is an aim accompanied by secondary activities and objectives. Gümüseli (1996a) determined that instead of leadership behaviours, the principals take more responsibilities such as the bureaucratic and legal barriers, time limitation, insufficiency of education, visions, determination. As a matter of fact, Gökyer (2004) found that these factors affected instructional leadership behaviours of principals.

According to Johnson and Johnson (1989), the duty of a principal is not to create new instructional methods and techniques, but to take a stand against the status quo and support new opinions and applications. In many schools, evidence is mounting that leaders are currently engaging in new practices to help their schools systematically improve student learning (Halverson, Grigg, Prichett, & Thomas, 2007). In this context, the essential role of a leader is to establish and maintain the school culture since it is a powerful symbolic tool for influencing teaching and learning in schools (Cafoğlu, 1995; Hargreaves, Earl, Moore, & Manning, 2001; Hart & Bredeson, 1996; Harris 2002; Hopkins, 2000; Kotter & Heskett, 1992; Masland, 1985; Peterson, 2002; Slater, Goldring, Bolman, Thurston, & Crow, 1994). Accordingly, the heart of the instructional leadership is the ability of leaders to change schools from cultures of internal accountability to institutions that can meet the demands of external accountability (Halverson et al., 2007).

Values and traditions play an important role in school culture and they are the elements that strengthen the language, meanings, past heroes and present practices of each school (Handy, 1993). In this context, it is important that the language, metaphor, myth and rituals of the school to be manifested in such a way that ensures all participants (principals, teachers and students) are aware of them (Sergiovanni, 1986).

In this cultural context, first, the principal is a role model in their school. The teacher has to notice and interpret the principal's important actions (Fullan, 1992). Likewise, teachers should observe the principal for signs of how things are going with respect to experimentation, risk taking, courage, collaboration, and attitudes towards the necessity of change (Deal & Peterson, 2000). Principals can promote a positive culture, by acting in a certain way that sends signals to teachers and students that they can achieve more (Zepeda, 2003).

Second, collaboration raises the level of collective brainpower and assists in problem solving (Sergiovanni, 2005). Instructional leaders who act within the scope of cooperation, collegiality, expertise and teamwork are hallmarks of a successful improvement (Hoy & Hoy, 2003; Zepeda, 2003). This type of leader enhances the belief that "collaborative practices should be promoted and become a natural part of the daily activities in a school, modeling flexible and diverse teaching methods" (Campo, 1993). Finally, trust is an integral component of the relationship between the instructional leader and the teachers. Without trust, efforts to build a collaborative culture and to ensure school improvement will be diminished, relationships will flounder and people may even be confined to cliques or special interest groups (Blasé & Blasé, 1994; Donaldson, 2001; Zepeda 2003).

The principal plays a major role in forming and maintaining the school culture (Açıkgöz, 1994; Bart, 2002; Campo, 1993; Chrispeels, 1992; Çelik, 2002; Deal & Peterson, 1999, 2000; Harris, 2002; İbicioğlu, 1999; Lambert, 2002; Pehlivanoğlu, 1999; Schein, 1996, 2004; Slater et al., 1994). The relationships between school culture and leadership styles were determined in researches (Alig-Mielcarek, 2003; Haris, 2002; Leithwood et al., 1999; Lucas, 2001; Murphy & Hallinger, 1988; Şahin, 2004).

School culture undertaken as conditional elements is generally evaluated to be positive. While some of the most explored subjects are collaboration and collegiality (for example, Canizo, 2002; Fowler, 2006; Giles, 1998; Gruenert, 2005; Horn-Hasley, 2007; Leonard, 2002; Lima, 2006; Lucas, 2001), another important subject is the affect of school culture on student achievement (for example, Fowler, 2006; Giles, 1998, Lima, 2006; Marcoulides & Heck, 1993; Smith, 2006). Findings indicate that that there are positive relationships between the school culture and the commitment, motivation, job satisfaction, communication leadership skills of teachers (Canizo, 2002; Jones, 1998).

In the 1990s, school culture researches in Turkey emerged and continued increasing in numbers after 2000. Among the first studies conducted using the quantitative method were those by Şişman (1994) on issues like collaboration, consensus and improving culture. Other researches include studies conducted by Terzi (1999) on power, evasion, helpfulness and affiliation culture; Çelik (2002) on originality, collaboration and trust; Celep (2002) on learning culture and instructional improvement; Şahin (2004) on collaboration and improving culture, traditional culture and social-educational culture; Şahin-Fırat (2007) on democratic management, participation, collaboration, and also school culture and school size by Şahin (2010) and Şahin-Fırat (2007). Studies on school culture and leadership styles have also been conducted by Koçman (2005) and Şahin (2004).

In Turkey, instructional leadership were specifically examined. According to Aksoy and Işık (2008), Balcı (1993), Bayrak (2001), Can (2007), Cerit (2007), Çalık and Şehitoğlu (2006), Dağlı (2000), Gümüşeli, (1996b), İnandı and Özkan (2006), Şişman (2004), Çelikten (2004) and Kaykanacı (2003) the principals have a limited afford of instructional leadership.

Instructional leadership and school culture were examined on variables such as academic achievement, length of service, teaching level, gender and SES (Aksoy & Işık, 2008; Atay, 2001; Gökyer, 2004; Koçman, 2005; Özden, 2002; Şişman, 2004; Tanrıöğen, 2000; Şahin, 2004, 2010; Şahin-Fırat, 2007). Most of the researches focus on how instructional lead ership and school culture affect academic achievement. As these, high achievement schools have high achievements both in instructional leadership and school culture (Alig-Mielcarek, 2003; Demirtas, 2010; Gruenert, 2005; Giles, 1998; Sahin, 2008a, 2008b; Sisman, 2004; Taylor, 2004; Wagner, 1999).

The relationship between instructional leadership and school culture were examined by (Alig-Mielcarek, 2003; Blasé & Blasé, 2004; Budhal, 2000; DuPont, 2009; Hunter, 1995; Lord, 2001; Miles, 2002). Among reviewed literature, the effect of instructional leadership on school culture was examined by DuPont' (2009).

Due to the fact that there is a lack of research that focuses on the relationship between school culture and instructional leadership in Turkey, this study aims to explore the relationship between school culture and instructional leadership in MLO's. The significance of this study is two-fold: First, it analyses school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and school culture. Also, it will be the first study (considering the studies that have been reviewed) that focuses on the relationship between school culture and instructional leadership as well as the effects of instructional leadership on school culture. It is also expected that the analysis of instructional leadership and school culture in MLOs will contribute to the literature with regard to the effectiveness of the development efforts in these schools.

The Purpose of the Research

The goal of this study is to analyze the perceptions of elementary school teachers regarding instructional leadership and school culture. This study will be based on the following research questions: (i) How do teachers perceive the instructional leadership and the school culture in CLS? (ii) Do demographic descriptors (teaching level, academic achievement and social-economic status -SES) influence teachers' perceptions of the instructional leadership and the school culture? (iii) Is there a relationship between the instructional leadership and the school culture? (iv) Does instructional leadership explain school culture?



This was a quantitative investigation using survey instruments Karasar, (1999) that involves demographic descriptors and items on instructional leadership and school culture.


The research was conducted during the 2005 -2006 academic year in Izmir. Data were collected from the 16 Curriculum Laboratory Schools (CLS) in Izmir. The sample was selected using a stratified sampling design of student achievement and social- economic level. This research instrument was applied to 157 teachers (6 schools) in Izmir.

CLS in Turkey: In Turkey this study was carried out in CLS that were leading the educational development process. In 1994, 208 elementary and secondary schools were chosen as pilot schools in 23 provinces within the scope of National Education Development Project (NEDP). CLS are pilot schools in which new education and management approaches, technology and curricula are tested before they are applied to the whole educational system. The model defines areas of competency of supervisors, principals and teachers together with the competencies of the students and the skills that the students are envisaged to gain. The plan was that the CLS model would be applied in all schools by the end of 2005 and the Department of Education Research and Development (Egitimi Arastirma ve Gelistirme Dairesi Baskanligi [EARGED], 2005, 2010) passed the responsibility of the implementation to the related units (Strateji Gelistirme Baskanligi, 2008). Although limited, some researches are done about CLS (Dönmez, 2002; Sahin, 2006).

Research Instruments

The data collection tool was the Instructional Leadership Inventory developed by Alig-Meilcarek (2003). The questionnaire was based on a 5-point Likert-type scale (1= strongly agree, ...5=strongly disagree). Three factors were identified from the results of the exploratory factor analysis of the original version of the inventory. The Turkish version internal consistency coefficients of the inventory for the total of the items was .95 and for each factor scale the range was from r=.81 to r=.88. As seen in Table 2, the Turkish version corresponds to the original inventory (Büyüköztürk, 2009).

The School Culture Inventory: It was developed by the researcher. The questionnaire was developed referencing the surveys created by Camburn, Goldring, Supovitz, Spillane, and Barnes (2005) and Cavanagh, MacNeill and Reynolds (2004). In addition, the interviews were conducted with teachers. The survey was prepared with both demographic descriptors and Likert-type items rang ing from 1= strongly agree to 5= strongly disagree. The survey was face and intent validated by six of the researchers. The survey consisted of 37 items and the data were organized into five factors. Reliabilities for the total items is 0.93, and for each factor scale ranged from r=.73 to r=.89. The Turkish inventory's reliabilities for each factor scale ranged from r=.64 to r=.91, and the total items was calculated as 0.95.

Two studies were conducted to evaluate the Turkish versions of The Instructional Leadership Inventory and School Culture Inventory. First, the researcher and two Turkish graduate students translated the questionnaire into Turkish from English. After this process, two other graduate students translated the Turkish version back into English to test the translation. In this process, both the English and Turkish questionnaires were examined in terms of cross cultural characteristics (Savasir, 1994). Second, a bilingual design was used to compare the Turkish and English questionnaires. 23 bilingual Turkish teachers completed the questionnaires that were then analyzed to check the test-retest correlation of the English and Turkish version of the instrument (The Instructional Leadership Inventory: r= 0.83; School Culture Inventory: r=0.86).

Data Collection

Two assistants handed out the questionnaires, meeting teachers personally to assure accurate and prompt data collection. Participation in this study was voluntary. Questionnaire was administered in a manner to protect individual confidentiality. The questionnaires were given to 198 teachers (84%) from a total of 236 teachers in Turkey and 165 questionnaires (83%) were returned to the researcher. Of the questionnaires returned, 157 were useable for the study (79%).

Analysis Procedure

The analysis was guided by the research questions. The questionnaire data were analysed using an SPSS program. The arithmetic means and standard deviation were calculated, analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and t-test were used to draw inferences about differences between the means of two or more groups. For all statistical tests the level of significance was set at p<0.05.


The overall statistical findings of the study indicated that teachers had positive perceptions about the instructional leadership style adopted by the principals of the schools (3.53). However, the dimensions of "promotes professional development" (3.64), providing feedback on the teaching and learning process" (3.57) were perceived at positive level, but "monitors and provides feedback" (3.39) were perceived at moderate level. The findings indicated that teachers tend to perceive the culture of their schools as positive (3.79). Moreover, all other dimensions were perceived as positively (4.00-3.63). There is no significant difference among groups with teachers' age and length of service. There is a positive and high level relationship between the principals instructional leadership style and school culture. The results indicate that instructional leadership has a statistically significant influence upon all factors of school culture. As a factor of school culture, school leadership was most significantly influenced by instructional leadership.


The overall statistical findings indicated that teachers tend to perceive the culture of their schools as positive in CLS. While the principals are evaluated most positively on the promotion of professional development, they are evaluated on a moderate level for providing feedback on the teaching and learning process. Also, DuPont (2009) determined that principals have limited afford on providing feedback on teaching and learning processes. In this context, principals take teachers' professional development into account in these schools in improvement process.

On the other hand, the findings indicated that teachers tend to perceive the culture of their schools positively in CLS. The results of other studies are mainly consistent with the findings of the present study in terms of the positive perception about the school culture (Celep, 2002; Koçman, 2005; Sahin, 2004; Sahin-Firat, 2007). Teacher collaboration is evaluated as the most positive one in school culture. This finding is consistent with findings of some other researches (Celep, 2002; Çelik, 2002; Sisman, 1994; Sahin-Firat, 2007).

One of the other important findings of the study is that teachers' age and length of service are not effective determinants on their views related to principal's instructional leadership and school culture. While these findings are consistent with some other instructional leadership researches (Aksoy ve Isik, 2008; Koçman, 2005; Özden, 2002) and school culture researches (Koçman, 2005; Sahin, 2010; Sahin-Firat, 2007), the other ones are not consistent with other instructional leadership researches (Gökyer, 2004; Sahin, 2004; Sahin-Firat, 2007; Tanriögen, 2000).

There is a positive relationship between instructional leadership and all the dimensions of school culture. There is also a strong positive relationship between the three dimensions of instructional leadership and the school leadership aspect of school culture. It was found out that the relationship between the other dimensions of instructional leadership and school culture is at a moderate level. These findings suggest that administrators/principals should exhibit instructional leadership behaviours as these skills help develop the unity of vision and mission, and improve the culture of progress as well as the culture of education. These findings are consistent with findings from previous studies (Alig-Mielcarek, 2003; Blase ve Blase, 2004; Budhal, 2000; DuPont, 2009; Lord, 2001; Miles, 2002; O'Donnell, 2003).

Among the variables, giving feedback and supervision and identifying and delivering purpose were found to be predicting school leadership. Furthermore, school leadership is the most predictive dimension of school culture. Identifying and delivering purpose, teacher collaboration and unity of vision are important predictors of the culture of development. Therefore, it is obvious that principals' focus on purpose will contribute to the establishment of unity of purpose and vision, collaboration and development culture in schools. Moreover, identifying and delivering purpose and conducting feedback and supervising were found to be predictors of the culture of instruction.

Principals' roles of identifying and delivering purpose, conducting feedback and supervision can be good predictors of the following: Teachers meet the needs of their students' individual differences, they believe that that every student can learn, and they value moral education and take risks towards achieving this goal. These findings are congruous with that of DuPont's (2009) study in which similar research tools were used.


Administrators should provide opportunities for teacher collaboration, sharing of leadership and professional development in order to create a positive and collaborative school culture. Administrators should be provided with training opportunities that will enable them to improve their instructional leadership, taking into consideration its positive effects on creating a positive school culture. Also, the factors that restrain instructional leadership should be eliminated. In this study, it was found that principals' feedback on the process of instruction is limited in comparison to the other factors. The reasons for this finding should be investigated and necessary measures should be taken accordingly. The relationship between instructional leadership and school culture could be further studied in primary and secondary schools.

* The study was presented in the III. Education Administration Congress (25-26 April 2008) in Osmangazi University.


Açikgöz, K. (1994). Egitimde etkili yönetici davranislari. Izmir: Kanyilmaz Matbaasi.

Aksoy, E. ve Isik, H. (2008). Ilkögretim okul müdürlerinin ögretim liderligi rolleri. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 19, 235-249.

Alig-Mielcarek, J. M. (2003). A model of school success: Instructional leadership, academic press, and student achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Ohio State, Columbus, US.

Atay, K. (2001). Ögretmen yönetici ve denetmenlerin bakis açisindan okul kültürü ve ögretmenlerin verimliligine etkisi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Yönetimi, 7 (26), 179-194.

Balci, A. (1993). Etkili okul: Kuram, uygulama ve arastirma. Ankara: Yavuz Dagitim.

Barth, R. S. (2002). The culture builder. Educational Leadership, 59 (8), 6-11.

Bayrak, N. (2001). Ilkögretim okul yöneticilerinin liderlik özellikler. Yayimlanmamis yüksek lisans tezi, Anadolu Üniversitesi, Egitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Eskisehir.

Blasé, J., & Blasé, J. (1994). Empowering teachers: What successful principals do. CA: Corwin Press.

Blasé, J., & Blasé, J. (1999). Effective instructional leadership: Teachers' perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 38 (2), 130-141.

Blasé J., & Blasé J. (2000). Effective instructional leadership teachers' perspectives on how principals promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 38 (2), 130-141.

Blasé, J., & Blasé, J. (2004). Handbook of instructional leadership: How really good principals promote teaching and learning. Calif., Corwin: Thousand Oaks, US.

Budhal, R. S. (2000). The impact of the principal's instructional leadership on the culture of teaching and learning in the school. Unpublished master' thesis, University of South Africa, South Africa.

Büyüköztürk, S. (2009). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabi: Istatistik, arastirma deseni, SPSS uygulamalari ve yorum. Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Cafoğlu, Z. (1995). Okulların güçlendirilmesi. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 1 (4), 549-557.

Camburn, E., Goldring, E., Supovitz, J., Spillane, J., & Barnes, C. (2005). Study of school leadership school staff questionnaire. Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Institute for Social Research University of Michigan.

Campo, C. (1993). Collaborative school cultures: How principals make a difference. School Organization, 13 (2), 199-127.

Can, N. (2007). İlköğretim okulu yöneticisinin bir öğretim lideri olarak yeni öğretim programlarının geliştirilmesi ve uygulanmasındaki yeterliliği. Eğitimde Kuram ve Uygulama, 3 (2), 228-244.

Canizo, T. L. (2002). Establishing collaborative structures and relationships: Teacher leaders' experiences. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Arizona, Arizona.

Cavanagh, R. F., MacNeill, N., & Reynolds, P. (2004). School culture: Connections and disconnections. Practising Administrator, 26 (3), 30-33.

Celep, C. (2002). İlköğretim okullarında öğrenme kültürü. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 8 (31), 356-373.

Cerit, Y. (2007). İlköğretim okulu müdürlerinin hizmet yönelimli liderlik rollerini gerçekleştirme düzeyleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 33, 88-98.

Chrispeels, J. H. (1992). Purposelful restructuring; Creating a culture for learning and achievement in elementary schools. London: The Falmer Press.

Çalık, C. ve Şehitoğlu, E. T. (2006). Okul müdürlerinin insan kaynakları yönetimi işlevlerini yerine getirebilme yeterlikleri. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Dergisi, 170, 94-109.

Çelik. V. (1999). Eğitimsel liderlik. Ankara: Pegem Yayın.

Çelik, V. (2002). Okul kültürü ve yönetimi. Ankara: Pegema yayıncılık.

Çelikten, M. (2004). Bir okul müdürünün günlüğü. Fırat Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14 (1), 123-135.

Dağlı, A. (2000). İlköğretim öğretmenlerinin algılarına göre ilköğretim müdürlerinin etkili müdürlük davranışları. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 23, 431-442.

Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (1998). How leaders influence the culture of schools. Educational Leadership, 56 (1), 28-30.

Deal T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (1999). Shaping school culture: The heart of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (2000). The Leadership paradox: Balancing logic and artistry in schools. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Demirtaş, Z. (2010). Okul kültürü ile öğrenci başarısı arasında ilişki. Eğitim ve Bilim, 35 (158), 1-13.

Donaldson, G. A. (2001). Cultivating leadership in schools: Connecting people, purpose, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Dönmez, B. (2002). Bir okul geliştirme modeli olarak laboratuar okulları uygulamasının değerlendirilmesi. Eğitim ve Bilim Dergisi, 27 (126), 70-83.

DuPont, J. P. (2009). Teacher perceptions of the influence of principal instructional leadership on school culture: A case study of the American Embassy School in New Delhi, India. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, US.

Eğitimi Araştırma ve Geliştirme Dairesi Başkanlığı [EARGED]. (2005). Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı MLO Uygulamaları. B.B. 08.O.33.07.00-11237648.

Eğitimi Araştırma ve Geliştirme Dairesi Başkanlığı [EARGED]. (2010). Müfredat laboratuar okulu modeli. http://earged. adresinden 08 Ocak 2011 tarihinde edinilmiştir.

Fowler, K. S. (2006). The relationship of school culture and Arkansas Primary Benchmark assessment scores, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas, Arkansas.

Fullan, M. G. (1992). Successful school improvement. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Giles, W. A. (1998). A study of school culture in a higher achieving and lower achieving urban high school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Gökyer, N. (2004). İlköğretim okulu müdürlerinin öğretim liderliği rollerini gerçekleşme düzeyleri ve bu rolleri sınırlayan etkenler. Yayımlanmamış doktora tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.

Gruenert, S. (2005). Correlations of collaborative school cultures with student achievement. National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Bulletin, 89, 43-55.

Gümüşeli, A. İ. (1996a). Okul müdürlerinin öğretim liderliğini sınırlayan etkenler. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 2 (31), 414-429.

Gümüşeli, A. İ. (1996b). İstanbul ilindeki ilköğretim okulu müdürlerinin öğretim liderliği davranışları [Yayımlanmış Araştırma]. Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Gümüşeli, A. İ. (2001). Çağdaş okul müdürlerinin liderlik alanları. Kuram ve. Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 28, 531-548.

Hallinger, P., & Murphy, J. (1985). Assessing the instructional leadership behavior of principals. Elementary School Journal, 86 (2), 217-248.

Halverson, R., Grigg, J., Prichett, R., & Thomas, C. (2007) The new instructional leadership: Creating data-driven instructional systems in schools. Journal of School Leadership, 17 (2), 159-193.

Handy, C. (1993). Understanding organization (4th ed.). London: Penguin Group.

Hargreaves, A., Earl, L., Moore, S., & Manning, S. (2001). Learning to change: Teaching beyond subjects and standards. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass A Wiley Company.

Harris, A. (2002). School improvement: What's in it for schools? New York: Roadledge Falmer.

Hart, A. W., & Bredeson, P. V. (1996). The principalship: A theory of professional learning and practice. New York City: McGraw-Hill.

Hopkins, R. (2000). Transition culture: An evolving exploration in to head, heart and hands of energy descent, USA: The Walnut Books.

Horn-Hasley, K. (2007). An examination of school culture and student engagement in a test-focused age of accountability. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University, US.

Hoy A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (2003). Instructional leader: A learning-centered guide. Boston: Allyn Bacon.

Hunter, C. M. (1995). Los Angeles unified school district middle school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and academic achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California University, California.

Ibicioglu, C. (1999). Ilkögretim okulu yöneticilerinin kültürel liderlik davranislari. Yayimlanmamis yüksek lisans tezi, Inönü Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Malatya.

Inandi, Y. ve M. Özkan. (2006). Resmi ilkögretim okullari ve liselerde görev yapan yönetici ve ögretmenlerin görüslerine göre müdürler ne derece ögretim liderligi davranislari göstermektedir? Mersin Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 2 (2), 123-149.

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Leading the cooperative schools. Minnesota: Interaction Book Company.

Jones, M. T. (1998). The Relationship of organizational commitment to the organizational culture of high schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Widener University, Chester, US.

Karasar, N. (1999). Bilimsel Arastirma Yöntemi, Ankara: Nobel Yayinevi.

Kaykanaci, M. (2003). Ilkögretim okulu müdürlerinin yönetim islerine verdikleri önem ve harcadiklari zaman. Kastamonu Egitim Dergisi, 11 (1), 137-158.

Koçman, E. A. (2005). Ilkögretim okulu müdürlerinin vizyoner liderlik davranislari ve okul kültürü. Yayimlanmamis doktora tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Egitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Izmir.

Kotter, J. P., & Heskett, J. L. (1992). Corporate culture and performance. New York: Hardcover.

Lambert, L. (2002). A framework for shared leadership. Educational Leadership, 59 (8), 37-40.

Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing leadership for changing times. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Leonard, M. J. (2002). An analysis of one school's effort to implement a whole school change initiative: The relationship between restructuring, professional development and classroom practices. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston College, Boston.

Lima, N. E. (2006). A case study on principal behaviors cultivating a positive school culture in an elementary school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Johnson & Wales University, Rode Island.

Lord, C. (2001). Teacher; Instructional leadership teams and school climate: A descriptive study of leadership behavior and indicators of climate in secondary schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Connecticut, US.

Lucas, S. E. (2001). Transformational leadership: Principals, leadership teams, and school culture. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Missouri, Columbia, US.

Marcoulides, G. A., & Heck, R. H. (1993), Organizational culture and performance: Proposing and testing a model. Organization Science, 4, 209-225.

Masland, T. A. (1985). Organizational culture in the study of higher education. The Review of Higher Education, 8 (2), 157-168.

Miles, M. T. (2002). The relative impact of principal instructional and transformational leadership on school culture. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Missouri-Columbia, US.

Murphy, J., & Hallinger, P. (1988). Characteristics of instructionally effective school districts. Journal of Educational Research, 81 (3), 175-181.

O'Donnell, R. (2003). Middle-level principals' instructional leadership behaviors and student achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lehigh University, Pennsylvania.

Özden, S. (2002). Ögretmen ve yöneticilerin degisim sürecinde olusturduklari okul kültürünün, okulun verimliligini artirabilmelerine yönelik algilama düzeyleri. Yayimlanmamis doktora tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Özden, Y. (1998). Egitimde dönüsüm. Ankara: Pegem Yayincilik.

Pehlivanoglu, K. (1999). Özel ortaögretim kurumlarindaki yönetici ve ögretmenlerin örgüt kültürü olusturmadaki yeterlilik derecesi. Yayimlanmamis yüksek lisans tezi, Yildiz Teknik Üniversitesi, Istanbul.

Peterson, K. D. (2002). Positive or negative? Journal of Staff Development, 23 (3), 10-15.

Savasir, I. (1994). Ölçek uyarlamasindaki bazi sorunlar ve çözüm yollari. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 9 (33), 27-32.

Schein, E. H. (1996). Three cultures of management: The key to organizational learning. Sloan Management Review, 38 (1), 9-20.

Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sergiovanni, T. J. (1986). Cultural and competing perspectives in administrative theory and practice. In T. J. Sergiovanni & J. E. Corbally (Eds.), Leadership and Organizational Culture: New Perspectives on Administrative Theory and Practice (pp. 1-12). Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Sergiovanni, T. J. (2005). Strengthening the heartbeat (1st ed.). US: Jossey-Bass.

Slater, R. O., Goldring, E., Bolman, L., Thurston, P. W., & Crow, G. M. (1994). Leadership and management processes. In W. K. Hoy (Ed.), Educational Administration: Ucea Document Base (pp. 6-31). New York: Mcgraw-Hill.

Smith, A. L. (2006). A study of the relationship between school culture and standardized test scores. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, Phoenix.

Strateji Gelistirme Baskanligi. (2008). 2009 Yili Bütçe Raporu. Ankara: Devlet Kitaplari.

Sahin, I. (2006). Ilkögretim müfredat laboratuar okullarinin okul gelistirme süreci açisindan incelenmesi. Yayimlanmamis doktora tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Egitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Izmir.

Sahin, S. (2004). Okul müdürlerinin dönüsümcü ve sürdürümcü liderlik stilleri ile okul kültürü arasindaki iliskiler (Izmir Ili Örnegi). Yayimlanmamis doktora tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Egitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Izmir.

Sahin, S. (2008a, Eylül). Türkiye ve Amerika Birlesik Devletleri'nde okul kültürü üzerine bir degerlendirme. 17. Ulusal Egitim Bilimleri Kongresinde sunulmus bildiri, Sakarya Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi, Sakarya.

Sahin, S. (2008b, Haziran). A comparative study on instructional leadership styles of the school principals in Turkey and the United States. International Conference on Educational Sciences 2008'de sunulan bildiri. Dogu Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Gazi Magusa, KKTC.

Sahin, S. (2010). Okul kültürünün bazi degiskenler açisindan incelenmesi (Izmir ili örnegi). Ilkögretim -Online E-Dergi, 9 (2), 561-575.

Sahin-Firat, N. (2007). Okul kültürü ve ögretmenlerin deger sistemleri. Yayimlanmamis doktora tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Egitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Izmir.

Sisman, M. (1994). Örgüt kültürü (Eskisehir il merkezindeki ilkokullarda bir arastirma). Eskisehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi Yayinlari.

Sisman, M. (2004). Ögretim liderligi. Ankara: Pegem A Yayincilik.

Tanriögen, A. (2000). Temel egitim ögretmenlerinin okul müdürlerinden bekledikleri ögretimsel liderlik davranislari. Pamukkale

Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 7 (12), http://pauegitimdergi. adresinden 04 Mayis 2008 tarihinde edinilmistir.

Taylor, J. E. (2004) Distributed instructional leadership and teachers' perceptions of and motivation instructional improvement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Terzi, A. R. (1999). Özel ve devlet liselerinde örgütsel kültür (Ankara ili örnegi). Yayimlanmamis doktora tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Wagner, L. (1999). Instructional leadership in high-poverty schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of La Verne, US.

Weber, J. (1996). Leading the instructional program. In S. Smith & P. Piele (Eds.), School leadership (pp. 253-278). Eugene, Oregon: Clearinghouse of Educational Management.

Whitaker, B. (1997). Instructional leadership and principal visibility. Clearing House, 70 (3), 157-155.

Zepeda, S. J. (2003) The principal as instructional leader: A handbook for supervisor. New York: Eye on Education.

Author affiliation:

Semiha SAHIN a

Dokuz Eylül University

a PhD. Semiha Sahin is currently an Assistant Professor at the Department of Educational Sciences, Educational Administration and Supervision. Correspendence: Assist Prof. Dokuz Eylül University, School of Buca Education, 35150 Buca/Izmir/Turkey. E-mail: & Phone: +90 232 420 4882/1621 Fax: +90 232 420 4895.

People who read this article also read:

EnglishRestful, Not Stressful, Increase

The use of this website is subject to the following Terms of Use