Date published: December 1, 2011
Note 1. Energy Consumption Data and Surveys. Most of the data in this section of the Monthly Energy Review MER) are developed from a group of energy-related surveys, typically called "supply surveys," conducted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Supply surveys are directed to suppliers and marketers of specific energy sources. They measure the quantities of specific energy sources produced, or the quantities supplied to the market, or both. The data obtained from EIA's supply surveys are integrated to yield the summaiy consumption statistics published in this section (and in Section 1) of the MER.
Users of EIA's energy consumption statistics should be aware of a second group of energy-related surveys, typically called "consumption surveys." Consumption surveys gather information on the types of energy consumed by end users of energy, along with the characteristics of those end users that can be associated with energy use. For example, the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey belongs to the consumption survey group because it collects information directly from end users (the manufacturing establishments). There are important differences between the supply and consumption surveys that need to be taken into account in any analysis that uses both data sources. For information on those differences, see Energy Consumption by End-Use Sector, A Comparison of Measures by Consumption and Supply Surveys, DOE/EIA-0533, U.S. Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC, April 6, 1990.
Note 2. Electrical System Energy Losses. Electrical system energy losses are calculated as the difference between total primary consumption by the electric power sector (see Table 2.6) and the total energy content of electricity retail sales (see Tables 7.6 and A6). Most of these losses occur at steam-electric power plants (conventional and nuclear) in the conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy to turn electric generators. The loss is a thermodynamically necessary feature of the steamelectric cycle. Part of the energy input-to -output losses is a result of imputing fossil energy equivalent inputs for hydroelectric and other energy sources, since there is no generally accepted practice for measuring those thermal conversion rates. In addition to conversion losses, other losses include power plant use of electricity, transmission and distribution of electricity from power plants to enduse consumers (also called "line losses"), and unaccounted for electricity. Total losses are allocated to the end-use sectors in proportion to each sector's share of total electricity sales. Overall, about two thirds of total energy input is lost in conversion. Currently, of electricity generated, approximately 5 percent is lost in plant use and 7 percent is lost in transmission and distribution.