Renewable Energy






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Publication: Monthly Energy Review
Date published: December 1, 2011

Note. Renewable Energy Production and Consumption. In Tables 1.1, 1.3, and 10.1, renewable energy consumption consists of: conventional hydroelectiicity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6); geothermal electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6), and geothermal heat pump and geothermal direct use energy; solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6), and solar thermal direct use energy; wind electricity net generation (converted to Btu using the fossilfuels heat rate - see Table A6); wood and wood-derived fuels consumption; biomass waste (municipal solid waste from biogenic sources, landfill gas, sludge waste, agricultural byproducts, and other biomass) consumption; fuel ethanol (minus dénaturant) and biodiesel consumption; and losses and co-products from the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel. In Tables 1.1, 1.2, and 10.1, renewable production is assumed to equal consumption for all renewable energy sources except biofuels (biofuels production comprises biomass inputs to the production of fuel ethanol and biodiesel).

Table 10.2a Sources

Residential Sector, Geothermal

Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Residential Sector, Solar/PV

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates based on Form EIA-63 A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey," and Form EIA-63B, "Annual Photovoltaic Module/Cell Manufacturers Survey." Monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Residential Sector, Wood

1973-1979: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.

1980 forward: EIA, Form EIA-457, "Residential Energy Consumption Survey"; and EIA estimates based on Form EIA-457 and regional heating degree-day data. Monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Commercial Sector, Hydroelectric Power

1989 forward: Commercial sector conventional hydroelectricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor forms, are converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6.

Commercial Sector, Geothermal

Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Commercial Sector, Solar/PV

2008 forward: Commercial sector solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6.

Commercial Sector, Wind

2009 forward: Commercial sector wind electricity net generation data from EIA, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6.

Commercial Sector, Wood

1973-1979: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.

1980-1983: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980-1983, Table ESl.

1984: EIA estimate based on the 1983 value.

1985-1988: Values interpolated.

1989 forward: EIA, Monthly Energy Review (MER), Tables 7.4a-7.4c; and EIA estimates based on Form EIA-871, "Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey." Data for wood consumption at commercial combined-heatand-power (CHP) plants are calculated as total wood consumption at electricity-only and CHP plants (MER, Table 7.4a) minus wood consumption in the electric power sector (MER, Table 7.4b) and at industrial CHP plants (MER, Table 7.4c). Annual estimates for wood consumption at other commercial plants are based on Form EIA-871 (the annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year); monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.

Commercial Sector, Biomass Waste

EIA, MER, Table 7.4c.

Commercial Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Dénaturant)

EIA, MER, Tables 3.5, 3.7a, and 10.3. Calculated as commercial sector motor gasoline consumption (Table 3.7a) divided by total motor gasoline product supplied (Table 3.5), and then multiplied by fuel ethanol (minus dénaturant) consumption (Table 10.3).

Table 10.2b Sources

Industrial Sector, Hydroelectric Power

Industrial sector conventional hydroelectricity net generation data from Table 7.2c are converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6.

Industrial Sector, Geothermal

Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center. Monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month. (The annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year.)

Industrial Sector, Solar/PV

2010 forward: Industrial sector solar thermal and photovoltaic (PV) electricity net generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," are converted to Btu by multiplying by the fossil-fuels heat rate - see Table A6.

Industrial Sector, Wood

1973-1979: EIA, Estim ates of U. S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981 , Table A2.

1980-1983: EIA, Estim ates of U. S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980-1983,TMqESI.

1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 1.

1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.

1987: EIA, Estimates of Biofuels Consumption in the United States During 1987, Table 2.

1988: Value interpolated.

1989 forward: EIA, Monthly Energy Review (MER), Table 7.4c; and EIA estimates based on Form EIA-846, "Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey." Data for wood consumption at industrial combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants are from MER, Table 7.4c. Annual estimates for wood consumption at other industrial plants are based on Form EIA-846 (the annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year); monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.

Industrial Sector, Biomass Waste

1981: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power sector waste consumption.

1982 and 1983: EIA estimates for total waste consumption based on Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power sector waste consumption.

1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power sector waste consumption.

1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.

1987: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8; and EIA, MER, Table 10.2c. Estimates are calculated as total waste consumption minus electric power sector waste consumption.

1988: Value interpolated.

1989 forward: EIA, MER, Table 7.4c; and EIA estimates based on information presented in Government Advisory Associates, Resource Recovery Yearbook and Methane Recovery Yearbook, and information provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Landfill Methane Outreach Program. Data for waste consumption at industrial CHP plants are from MER, Table 7.4c. Annual estimates for waste consumption at other industrial plants are based on the non-EIA sources listed above (the annual estimate for the current year is set equal to that of the previous year); monthly estimates are created by dividing the annual estimates by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.

Industrial Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Dénaturant)

EIA, MER, Tables 3.5, 3.7b, and 10.3. Calculated as industrial sector motor gasoline consumption (Table 3.7b) divided by total motor gasoline product supplied (Table 3.5), and then multiplied by fuel ethanol (minus dénaturant) consumption (Table 10.3).

Industrial Sector, Losses and Co-products

Calculated as fuel ethanol losses and co-products (Table 10.3) plus biodiesel losses and co-products (Table 10.4).

Transportation Sector, Fuel Ethanol (Minus Dénaturant)

EIA, MER, Tables 3.5, 3.7c, and 10.3. Calculated as transportation sector motor gasoline consumption (Table 3.7c) divided by total motor gasoline product supplied (Table 3.5), and then multiplied by fuel ethanol (minus dénaturant) consumption (Table 10.3).

Transportation Sector, Biodiesel

EIA, MER, Table 10.4. Transportation sector biodiesel consumption is assumed to equal total biodiesel consumption.

Table 10.3 Sources

Feedstock

Calculated as fuel ethanol production (in thousand barrels) minus dénaturant, and then multiplied by the fuel ethanol feedstock factor - see Table A3.

Losses and Co-products

Calculated as fuel ethanol feedstock plus dénaturant minus fuel ethanol production.

Denaturant

1981-2008: Data in thousand barrels for petroleum dénaturant in fuel ethanol produced are estimated as 2 percent of fuel ethanol production; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.645 million Btu per barrel (the estimated quantity-weighted factor of pentanes plus and conventional motor gasoline used as dénaturant).

2009 and 2010: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), Table 1. Data in thousand barrels for net production of pentanes plus at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.620 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of pentanes plus). Data in thousand barrels for net production of conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.253 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of conventional motor gasoline). Total dénaturant is the sum of the values for pentanes plus, conventional motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending components.

2011: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), monthly reports, Table 1. Data in thousand barrels for net production of pentanes plus at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 4.620 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of pentanes plus). Data in thousand barrels for net production of conventional motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants are multiplied by -1; these data are converted to Btu by multiplying by 5.253 million Btu per barrel (the approximate heat content of conventional motor gasoline). Total dénaturant is the sum of the values for pentanes plus, conventional motor gasoline, and motor gasoline blending components.

Production

1981-1992: Fuel ethanol production is assumed to equal fuel ethanol consumption - see sources for "Consumption."

1993-2004: Calculated as fuel ethanol consumption plus fuel ethanol stock change minus fuel ethanol net imports. These data differ slightly from the original production data from EIA, Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report," and predecessor form, which were not reconciled and updated to be consistent with the final balance.

2005-2008: EIA, Form EIA-819, "Monthly Oxygenate Report."

2009 and 2010: EIA, PSA, Table 1, data for net production of fuel ethanol at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants.

2011: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1, data for net production of fuel ethanol at renewable fuels and oxygenate plants.

Trade, Stocks, and Stock Change

1992-2010: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Table 1.

2011: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1.

Consumption

1981-1989: EIA, Estim ates of U. S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10; and interpolated values for 1982, 1983, 1985, 1986, and 1988.

1990-1992: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992, Table D2; and interpolated value for 1991.

1993-2004: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 2 and 16. Calculated as 10 percent of oxygenated finished motor gasoline field production (Table 2), plus fuel ethanol refinery input (Table 16).

2005-2008: EIA, PSA, annual reports, Tables 1 and 15. Calculated as motor gasoline blending components adjustments (Table 1), plus finished motor gasoline adjustments (Table 1), plus fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs (Table 15).

2009 and 2010: EIA, PSA, Table 1. Calculated as fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs minus fuel ethanol adjustments.

2011: EIA, PSM, monthly reports, Table 1. Calculated as fuel ethanol refinery and blender net inputs minus fuel ethanol adjustments.

Consumption Minus Denaturant

Calculated as fuel ethanol consumption minus the amount of dénaturant in fuel ethanol consumed. Dénaturant in fuel ethanol consumed is estimated by multiplying dénaturant in fuel ethanol produced by the fuel ethanol consumption-toproduction ratio.

Table 10.4 Sources

Feedstock

Calculated as biodiesel production in thousand barrels multiplied by 5.433 million Btu per barrel (the biodiesel feedstock factor - see Table A3).

Losses and Co-products

Calculated as biodiesel feedstock minus biodiesel production.

Production

2001-2005: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Commodity Credit Corporation, Bioenergy Program records. Annual data are derived from quarterly data. Monthly data are estimated by dividing the annual data by the number of days in the year and then multiplying by the number of days in the month.

2006: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, ???311? - Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks," data for soybean oil consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel). In addition, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that 14.4 million gallons of yellow grease were consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel).

2007: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "M311K - Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks," data for all fats and oils consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel).

Januaiy 2008-December 2009: EIA, Monthly Biodiesel Production Report, December 2009 (release date October 2010), Table 11. Monthly data for 2008 are estimated based on U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, M311K data, multiplied by the EIA 2008 annual value's share of the M3 1 IK 2008 annual value.

January 2010-July 2011: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, "M311K - Fats and Oils: Production, Consumption, and Stocks," data for all fats and oils consumed in methyl esters (biodiesel).

August 2011 forward: EIA, Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System.

Trade

U.S. Department of Agriculture, imports data for Harmonized Tariff Schedule codes 3824.90.40.20, "Fatty Esters Animal/Vegetable/Mixture" (for data through June 2010), and 3824.90.40.30, "Biodiesel/Mixes" (for data beginning in July 2010); and exports data for Schedule B code 3824.90.40.00, "Fatty Substances Animal/Vegetable/Mixture" (for data through December 2010), and 3824.90.40.30, "Biodiesel <70%" (for data beginning in January 2011). Although these categories include products other than biodiesel (such as biodiesel coprocessed with petroleum feedstocks; and products destined for soaps, cosmetics, and other items), biodiesel is the largest component. In the absence of other reliable data for biodiesel trade, EIA sees these data as good substitutes.

Stocks and Stock Change

2009 and 2010: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA), Table 1, data for renewable fuels except fuel ethanol.

2011: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly, Table 1, data for renewable fuels except fuel ethanol.

Balancing Item

Calculated as biodiesel consumption and biodiesel stock change minus biodiesel production and biodiesel net imports.

Consumption

2001-2008: Calculated as biodiesel production plus biodiesel net imports.

Januaiy and February 2009: EIA, PSA, Table 1, data for refinery and blender net inputs of renewable fuels except fuel ethanol.

March 2009 forward: Calculated as biodiesel production plus biodiesel net imports minus biodiesel stock change.

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