Author: Potter, Caroline
Date published: June 1, 2012
In her all too brief composing career, Lili Boulanger (1893-1918) wrote a number of pieces for which there is proof they existed but which have now disappeared. One of these missing pieces, Marche gaie, resurfaced in 2011 in a private collection in North Carolina; the owners are descendents of a family who knew the Boulanger family well, and are the grandchildren of the dedicatee of the piece.
As Marche gaie was registered in 1916 with the Société des Auteurs, Compositeurs, et Éditeurs de Musique (SACEM) as a work by Lili Boulanger for chamber orchestra, we can assume the work was composed in that year. The work has been mentioned in the Boulanger literature since Eduard Reeser's pioneering study of her works, published in the Dutch journal De Muziek in 1933.1 Alexandra Laederich's 2007 definitive catalog of Lili Boulanger's works describes Marche gaie as missing ("non retrouvée"), and as registered in the SACEM catalog for small orchestra. 2 No evidence of public performance survives, though records may be incomplete, as the principal music journals and newspapers did not publish during World War I. The surviving manuscript, which is in an unknown hand, is a short score written on treble and bass staves with no instrumental indications. Its performance duration is just under four minutes. Although the score is playable on the piano, it is not always pianistic in texture; for instance, some sustained notes or tremolando chords in the bass are not piano-friendly. The manuscript is not signed and dated at the end, which is atypical of Lili Boulanger manuscripts (she was unusually precise in this; for many works she records the first and last date of composition, including the day of the week). Her extant manuscript scores from 1917-18 are either partly or entirely in the hand of her sister, Nadia Boulanger (1887-1979).
By 1916, Lili Boulanger's surviving diary shows that her handwriting was extremely variable in quality, and by the following year, she was too ill to write more than a handful of diary entries. The diary does not mention Marche gaie at all, though there is a gap from 5 June 1916 (when she writes "I'm exhausted-stay in bed"3) until 1 October. It is also true that she rarely refers to work in progress in her diary, and indeed most of her works pass unmentioned; there is a single reference in the 1916 diary on 27 May to a psalm ("work a bit on the psalm-which I'm getting back to"4), though it is unclear whether this refers to Psalm 24, 129, or 130, all of which were composed during that year. Instead, the diary focuses on meetings with friends, travel, her state of health, and thoughts about pressing contemporary matters, particularly the Great War. She also often states how much things cost, no doubt partly because the Boulangers were not wealthy.5 In her 1916 diary there are also a few references to her opera La princesse Maleine, based on Maurice Maeterlinck's play; she obtained the playwright's permission to set the text in that year, but only a few passages of this work survive. It is likely that a short composition of the length of Marche gaie would have taken her only a few days to write: for instance, Cortège (1914), for violin and piano or piano solo, is dated "Jeudi Vendredi 4, 5 juin 1914."6
The charming dedication of Marche gaie is "Composée pour ma gentille petite amie Jeanne Leygues," a figure who has not previously been known to Boulanger scholars. No other Boulanger work has the words "Composed for" in the dedication, nor is another dedicatee described as "gentille" (kind). There is frustratingly little documentary evidence about the friendship of Jeanne Leygues and Lili Boulanger; only one tantalizing reference in Boulanger's 1916 diary mentions (in Nadia Boulanger's hand) on 7 October, "Letters sent: forwarded a letter Jeanne to Nadia."7 Whether this refers to Jeanne Leygues or not is unknown.
We do know that Jeanne Leygues was born on 6 October 1890, three years before Lili Boulanger: she was the younger of two daughters8 of Georges Leygues (1857-1933) and his wife, born Marie Anne Desclaux (1857-1951). Georges Leygues was a politician from Villeneuve-sur-Lot in southwest France who was elected as a deputy for Lot-et-Garonne in 1885, and was voted back in for the rest of his life. His political sympathies were right of center, though he proved able to work with coalition colleagues from across the political spectrum. Leygues trained as a lawyer, though his real love was for the arts. He was a published poet (part of the Parnassian circle of writers), and his American descendants claim that Victor Hugo encouraged him to continue writing poetry.
Georges Leygues's principal career, however, was as a highly successful politician. He obtained ministerial office in his 30s, first as Ministre des Beaux-Arts for most of the period 1894-1902 (he spent ten months in 1895 as Interior Minister before resuming his previous ministerial post). As minister, he took a serious interest in the Paris Conservatoire, drawing up a document reforming several aspects of the institution in August 1894; most of these reforms related to age limits for admission in different classes, and the length of time a student could stay in a class.9 Articles in Le ménestrel show he regularly attended Conservatoire prizegiving events, and in 1906 one of his poems, "Sérénade," was set by the organist and composer Adolphe Deslandres (1840-1911).
Leygues was prime minister of France under President Alexandre Millerand from 24 September 1920 until 16 January 1921, but his most significant contribution as politician was as Ministre de la Marine, a post he held almost continuously (under a bewildering number of different prime ministers) from 1917 until his death. His wife hosted a salon at their home, and was active in charity work, especially for families and people living in slum conditions. A Portrait de Madame Georges Leygues was painted in 1907 by Marcel Baschet, who is best known to musicians for his early portrait of Debussy, though most of his subjects were politicians rather than artists. Family friends included Auguste Rodin-who sculpted two busts of Georges Leygues in 1906, and introduced the family to Claude Monet-and other artists, and musicians including Ernest Reyer and Camille Saint-Saëns.
Although documentary evidence of the family's connection with the Boulangers is scanty, Leygues's American descendents confirm that the two families knew each other. A letter addressed to Nadia Boulanger from Mme Georges Leygues dated 30 December 1927, which is now housed in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, shows that the politician and his wife offered support for Boulanger to be decorated with the Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur. The Ministre des Beaux-Arts of the period, Édouard Herriot, noted in his letter to Mme Leygues that the couple had expressed a special interest in this award, and he promised to support Boulanger's candidacy "with the strongest desire to be agreeable to you."10 Madame Leygues forwarded this letter to Nadia Boulanger, adding a handwritten note in which she addressed the teacher as "chère Nadia." Evidently, their connection went beyond a simple exchange of polite greetings.
There is, in addition, plenty of circumstantial evidence linking the Boulanger and Leygues families. Jeanne was the dedicatee in 1901 of Théodore Dubois's piano suite Au jardin: Suite mignonne pour piano. As Dubois (1837-1924) was director of the Paris Conservatoire from 1896 to 1905, and had a seat in the Académie des Beaux-Arts from 1894, he would have had many dealings with Georges Leygues, and this dedication could well have been an attempt by Dubois to curry favor with an important politician by dedicating a work to his young daughter. It also suggests that Jeanne Leygues was a capable musician even as a ten- or eleven-year-old child, and her family confirms that she was a good pianist and singer. The six piano pieces which form the suite are playable by an amateur performer, and their most striking feature is the textual commentary (presumably by Dubois himself) on the score. These are unpretentious children's pieces, and the piano responds in appropriately onomatopoeic fashion to the "quack, quack," "pitter-patter," or "they dance a waltz" texts. If it were possible to imagine a non-ironic and non-quirky Erik Satie, this would be the best description of these piano pieces.
The Boulanger family connections with the Conservatoire show that they moved in the same circles as the Leygues family. Ernest Boulanger, father of Nadia and Lili, had won the Prix de Rome in 1835, and was a singing tutor at the Conservatoire for many years before his death in 1900; and Nadia enrolled as a student before her tenth birthday. Like Lili Boulanger-the first woman to win the Prix de Rome in musical composition-Jeanne Leygues was a trailblazer for her gender, being one of the first women to graduate from the École du Louvre-a private, higher-education institution attached to the museum, with a curriculum focused on art history. Jeanne had her own connections to the contemporary artistic scene, too, as both Léon Bakst and Étienne Dinet dedicated watercolors to her.11
The Leygues family was therefore prominent in political and artistic Paris, and from 1909 they became very wealthy. Georges Leygues was a close friend of Alfred Chauchard (1821-1909), a businessman of humble origins who co-founded one of the first Paris department stores, the Grands Magasins du Louvre, just when shopping was becoming a fashionable leisure activity for the expanding middle class of Paris. (The department store closed in 1976, and its site is now part of the building housing Le Louvre des Antiquaires.) He also amassed a magnificent collection of art and antiques, much of which was left to the Louvre museum when he died. Georges Leygues successfully lobbied for Chauchard to receive the Grand Croix de la Légion d'Honneur. On his death, Chauchard left detailed instructions for an extravagant funeral which was reported in the national and even international press.12 He left his Paris town house to his mistress, 12 million francs to Georges Leygues, and a million francs each to his wife and two daughters. Chauchard also left a legacy to the secretary of the Legion of Honor, who declined to accept it.13 Georges Leygues's ministerial career was interrupted from 1909 until 1917; his descendents claim this was because his colleagues were jealous of his new-found wealth. Much of Leygues's money was spent on major building works in his home town, including a church, a bridge, and an arts center. President Georges Clemenceau brought him back into the government as Ministre de la Marine in 1917, and there was a press campaign encouraging Leygues to run for presidential office in 1923, though he did not in fact do so.
Jeanne Leygues's life changed decisively in 1916 when she met Paul Ayres Rockwell (1889-1985). Rockwell, who was brought up in Asheville, North Carolina, trained as a journalist and worked as a reporter on the Atlanta Constitution in Georgia in 1913. The turning point of his life was the outbreak of World War I, when he decided to enlist in the French Foreign Legion with his younger brother Kiffin. When asked by Louis Silveri in 1976 why he and his brother traveled to France to fight, Rockwell replied: "Well, because we were brought up differently from most people today. We had a love of history and a sense of gratitude to the French for helping us in the War of Independence. I had a little chip on my shoulder because of about four hundred thousand Germans who fought in the Yankee Army against the South."14 The Rockwell brothers were thus among the first Americans to fight in World War I. While Kiffin had trained at the Virginia Military Academy, Paul Rockwell had no previous experience as a soldier (though in his interview with Silveri he mentions telling the Foreign Legion recruiters otherwise). After a month training in the south of France, the brothers were posted with their regiment to the Battle of the Marne late in 1914.15
Paul Rockwell's stint in the army was brief: the Asheville Citizen-Times reported "Just before Christmas , Paul was severely wounded in trench warfare and was judged unfit for further infantry duty. Because of his journalistic background and his fluent French, he offered himself during his recovery to the Section d'Information of the French Army as a combat correspondent, and was accepted. He spent the remainder of the war in the role of war correspondent."16 Kiffin Rockwell, on the other hand, transferred to the Lafayette Escadrille, an air squadron of mostly American volunteer pilots, and became one of the first American flying aces. He shot down a German aircraft in Alsace on 18 May 1916 (the first American pilot to do so) for which he was awarded the Croix de Guerre and Médaille Militaire. He was killed in an aerial battle on 23 September that year.
Lili Boulanger was deeply affected by the war, worrying about friends on active service, and following news reports avidly. She wrote in her diary on 2 March 1916: "I am extremely troubled by this German offensive against Verdun-how much more sadness-I think of everyone who will not come home and my heart aches."17 Three months later, she mentions a "naval battle in the North Sea between the English and the Germans-how dreadful!-with no other result than countless abominations and suffering-ah! it's too painful."18 The Boulanger sisters founded a charity-the Comité Franco-Américain du Conservatoire National-that supported French musicians affected by the war, whether they were serving in the armed forces or suffering at home. Much of the charity's funds were raised by American contacts, and these links led after the war to the foundation in 1921 of the Conservatoire Américain at Fontainebleau, in which Nadia Boulanger played a pivotal role. Lili Boulanger's diary reveals that the sisters spent a great deal of time and energy in 1915 and early in 1916 dealing with charity business.
In 1916, Paul Rockwell went for rehabilitation to the Château de Lamothe, a property purchased by the Leygues family in their home region of Lot-et-Garonne, which during World War I was known as the Hôpital de Lamothe. In the style of the 1996 Oscar® Best Picture The English Patient, Jeanne Leygues nursed him and they fell in love. Lili Boulanger had her own relationship with a young man who had fought in the war-Jean Bouwens, the son of her guardians-which, according to her diary, was particularly intense in March-April 1915. While there are, sadly for the researcher, no diary entries by Boulanger for that year after 20 April, it is clear that by 1916, Bouwens and Boulanger were just good friends.
Jeanne Leygues and Paul Rockwell, on the other hand, married in Ste- Clotilde Church in the 7th arrondissement of Paris on 4 December 1916. The wedding was reported in newspapers on both sides of the Atlantic. The New York Times headline for the story, reported on the wedding day, was "Paul Rockwell Married. Mlle. Leygues, French Heiress, Becomes His Bride In Paris." Le Figaro stated on 20 December 1916 that "because of the circumstances and the family being in mourning, the ceremony was a very intimate affair and no letters announcing the marriage were sent."19 The bride's witnesses were Paul Deschanel, president of the Chamber of Deputies, and the Major-General of the French army; the bridegroom's were the vicomte du Peloux and an aviator from the American squadron, Jim McConnell. As there is no diary entry by Lili Boulanger on the day of the wedding, it is not clear whether she attended the ceremony, though given her fragile condition at the time, it is likely she was unable to go out. Two days before the wedding, she wrote "Am cheerful today and yet am suffering a lot with my intestines-stay in bed."20 She was in far poorer spirits by the end of the month, writing on 29 December "I feel so tired that I can't manage to get up-I knit, lying down-I read a little-when will I be finally cured-I can hardly eat, I feel so dreadful." The following day, she conjured up a striking and contemporary image: "I'm shivering all over-my blood leaps and bounds in my veins like a motorbike starting up."21
As all available records indicate that Marche gaie was composed in 1916, this raises the possibility that the work was composed as a wedding pres - ent for Jeanne Leygues and Paul Rockwell; one could speculate that it may even have been played during the wedding ceremony, though the published accounts of the wedding in Le Figaro and the New York Times do not mention any particular music. We shall see that the only evidence for this work being a wedding gift is embedded in the music. Was Jeanne Leygues described as "gentille" in the dedication of Marche gaie because she had done a particular favor for Boulanger-perhaps ensuring she had medical supplies in 1916, or giving her financial assistance by commissioning the work?
The Rockwells' only child, a daughter, Loula (named after Rockwell's mother) was born on 19 November 1917, but the marriage did not last and the couple divorced in 1923. Rockwell returned to the United States in the 1930s and remarried, and Jeanne Leygues later married a Polish artist, Count Vladimir (Wlodzimierz) de Terlikowski (1873-1951), and lived with him in Paris and St-Raphaël. Loula Rockwell was brought up in Paris, spending little time in America until she emigrated in 1939. She settled in her father's home town of Asheville, marrying Vance Jordan Brown, and lived until 2009.22 Her family states that she did not show to anyone the music manuscript in her possession, which she must have looked after following her mother's death.
Marche gaie has a missing companion piece, Marche funèbre. Boulanger's small catalog provides two other examples of paired works: D'un soir triste and D'un matin de printemps (1917-18), and the piano pieces D'un jardin clair and D'un vieux jardin (both 1914). The surviving paired pieces couple a lively, outgoing work with a more sombre, reflective counterpart, and the titles of Marche gaie and Marche funèbre suggest they would have followed a similar pattern. Given the dedication of Marche gaie to Jeanne Leygues in the year of her wedding, it is reasonable to hypothesize that Marche funèbre could be linked to the same source; it is highly plausible that the work could have been a tribute to Kiffin Rockwell, who was killed less than three months before his brother's marriage. Of course, it is not possible to confirm or deny this until the manuscript surfaces.
The surviving manuscript of Marche gaie is written on treble and bass staves with no instrumental indications, and it is not playable without some editorial intervention. Many of Boulanger's works were arranged for different instrumental ensembles during her lifetime; no doubt this was done at her publisher Ricordi's suggestion to ensure the pieces had as wide a market as possible. D'un soir triste and D'un matin de printemps exist as orchestral works and for piano trio, and the former piece also survives in a cello and piano version. D'un matin de printemps is most frequently performed in its version for violin (or flute) and piano. In this spirit, I will launch Marche gaie in two versions: one for solo piano, and one for Boulanger's intended small orchestra, orchestrated in appropriate style by Robert Orledge. (Publication by Schott Music is in preparation.) One correction to the manuscript is essential: the two measures before the final reprise of the opening clearly move from sextuplet sixteenth-notes in the bass featuring a F# to the same figuration with an F#, while the treble stave features repeat signs indicating the F#-based figuration should continue. This is clearly either an oversight which Boulanger would have corrected if she had had the opportunity to revise the score, or an error by the copyist of this manuscript.
Lili Boulanger's composition career lasted barely seven years; it surely goes without saying that the twenty-two- or twenty-three-year-old composer who wrote Marche gaie was still developing a musical style of her own. Marche gaie shows some similarities with other Boulanger works, and this, together with evidence of the work's provenance and the existence of a work with this title in Boulanger's catalog, provides compelling evidence that she is the author of the manuscript found in North Carolina. Lili Boulanger's earlier Cortège (1914)-which exists in versions for solo piano, and for flute or violin and piano-is a shorter piece which is particularly close in style to Marche gaie: both are upbeat marches, with a simple scalar melody enlivened by dotted rhythm (figs. 1a and 1b show the opening measures of each piece). Both are sectional in construction, and much of their musical material can be derived from their opening; both are tonal though both avoid conventional modulations to the dominant.
D'un matin de printemps (1917-18) is another Boulanger work with features in common with Marche gaie : a lively, snappy rhythmic profile and sectional construction is shared by both pieces, and both feature a harmonically adventurous episode (from rehearsal numbers 6-7 of the score of D'un matin de printemps, and mm. 81-91 of Marche gaie) with a simple treble line which is nearly, but not quite, a sequence over an oscillating bass. The piano textures of Boulanger's three published works composed specifically for the instrument-D'un jardin clair, D'un vieux jardin, and Thème et variations (all completed 1914)23-were a useful guideline for the piano arrangement of Marche gaie. Boulanger's piano style is closer to Fauré than any other older contemporary: her Thème et variations in C minor was surely modeled on Fauré's identically titled work in C-sharp minor (op. 73), and the two "garden" pieces also show a preference for a generous, rich piano sound, with big chords and thicktextured oscillating figures. Fauré's mark is also heard in the sudden shift to C minor in m. 51, which itself becomes a pivot chord allowing a modulation from C major via C minor to the distant A-flat major (fig. 2).
At the time of composition of Marche gaie, Lili Boulanger was showing an interest in the music of Emmanuel Chabrier; indeed, Chabrier's Joyeuse marche (1888) is a possible model for Boulanger's work, even in its very similar title. The Chabrier march was originally written for orchestra and, also like Marche gaie, it is half of a pair of pieces, being preceded by a Prélude pastoral. Again, there is a possible connection here with the Leygues family: Chabrier collected Impressionist paintings before the style became fashionable and, like Jeanne Leygues's parents, he was a friend of Claude Monet and Édouard Manet. Given Lili Boulanger's welldocumented love of puns, hidden messages, and plays on words, it is possible that this Chabrier reference in a work dedicated to a member of the Leygues family was intentional. At the start of her 1917 diary (which features very few entries in her hand), Boulanger lists the items in her possession that have been lent to her; these include scores of Chabrier's España and overture to Gwendoline, lent by "M. Moullé"-who must have been Édouard Moullé (1845-1923), a close friend of Chabrier with a strong interest in Spanish and Norman folk song. In fact, Moullé also lent Boulanger a book of songs from Normandy that he had transcribed.
The stomping common-chord texture and harmony of the second section of Marche gaie would surely not have been written without Chabrier's example, and the cadence at the end of this section is highly characteristic of Chabrier (fig. 3).
The most charming musical pun in this work, however, is a nearcitation of Mendelssohn's famous "Wedding March" toward the end of the second theme of Marche gaie (compare fig. 3 with fig. 4).
Boulanger's allusion to this piece is subtler than a quotation of the well-known main tune would have been; the extract she cites is from the end of the second theme of Mendelssohn's piece. Lili Boulanger's love of playful musical allusions and references is apparent elsewhere in her work: she is particularly fond of the descending tritone figure that opens Debussy's Prélude à L'après-midi d'un faune, as there are at least four references to this motif in her music, most obviously in Nocturne (1911), which was originally composed for flute and piano, though it is now most often heard as a violin and piano piece.24 Her citation of Mendels sohn's "Wedding March" in Marche gaie is surely incontrovertible proof that the work was composed as a wedding present.
In 1916, Boulanger was frequently ill, undergoing several different treatments, none of which were successful, and was deeply affected by the suffering of others during the war. The fact that she continued composing despite everything is testament to her extraordinary determination and strength of character. Lili Boulanger was very far from being a fragile, depressive person: her diaries reveal a young woman who loved socializing at concerts and parties, was devoted to her friends and sister, eagerly followed contemporary events, and dreamed of traveling. Her fun-loving side only rarely surfaces in her music, which is why it is a particular joy to bring the unpretentious occasional piece which is Marche gaie back to life.
1. Eduard Reeser, "Lili Boulanger," De Muziek 7, no. 5 (February 1933): 210-21.
2. "Marche gaie pour petit orchestre . . . est inscrite au catalogue de la SACEM": Alexandra Laederich, "Catalogue de l'oeuvre de Lili Boulanger," in Nadia Boulanger et Lili Boulanger: Témoignages et études, ed. Alexandra Laederich, Collection Perpetuum mobile (Lyon: Symétrie, 2007), 396. This most complete and up-to-date worklist for Lili Boulanger is on pp. 355-96.
3. "Suis patraqué-reste au lit." Lili Boulanger's diaries are housed in the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BNF); the catalog number for her 1916 diary is Rés.Vmf.ms.116(1).
4. Ibid.: "travaille un peu au psaume-que je reprends."
5. For example, she notes that a ticket to the Opéra-comique for a performance of Camille Erlanger's Le juif polonais, which she attended on 12 January, cost 5 francs 60 centimes, and the cloakroom charge was 25 centimes. Later that year, she also notes doctors' fees and grocery and other bills.
6. Laederich, 381.
7. "Envoyé: réex[pédiée] une lettre Jeanne à Nadia." The diary is written in both Lili and Nadia Boulanger's hands; Nadia's contributions are almost all lists of letters or telephone calls received or sent, or details about visitors to the home.
8. Jeanne's sister, Marie-Thérèse (1882-1967), married a banker, Lucien Raphaël (1872-1943) on 6 May 1907; her witnesses at the civil ceremony were the president of France, and Alfred Chauchard (see below). The family owned the private Banque Raphaël. One of her sons, Jacques Raphaël-Leygues (1913-1994), became a diplomat and politician who carried on the Leygues family artistic tradition when he published a volume of poetry in 1946.
9. See "Les réformes du Conservatoire," Le ménestrel, 19 August 1894.
10. Typed letter with handwritten additions, BNF NLA 81 (129): "Je prends une note spéciale de votre intervention et je vous prie d'être assurée que je ne manquerai pas, lors de la préparation de la promotion de janvier, de me faire présenter le dossier de cette artiste et d'examiner ses titres avec le plus vif désir de vous être agréable."
11. Information communicated by Vance Brown.
12. The New York Times published a report on the day of the funeral, 10 June 1909. The reporter mentioned that over half a million people lined the route from his home in rue Velasquez (the 8th arrondissement) to the Madeleine, and the hearse was "drawn by six black horses caparisoned in the trappings of mourning . . . preceded by three funeral cars banked high with the rarest flowers." The reporter also wrote "there was almost a riot . . . stirred up by the Socialist newspapers" because Chauchard left little of his estate to charity compared to the widow of the founder of the Bon Marché stores, who left her entire fortune to charity, religious institutions, and store employees.
14. Interview with Dr. Louis D. Silveri on 22 July 1976 for the Southern Highlands Research Center, University of North Carolina at Asheville, accessed 22 February 2012 at http://toto.lib.unca.edu /findingaids/oralhistory/SHRC/rockwell_paul.pdf.
16. Undated reference cited in Kiffin Gish dot Com, http://www.kiffingish.com/kiffin-yates-rockwell/ (accessed 22 February 2012).
17. BNF Rés.Vmf.ms.116(1): "suis très tourmentée de cette offensive allemande contre Verdun-que de tristesses encore-je pense à tous ceux qui ne reviendront pas et mon coeur souffre."
18. Diary entry on 3 June 1916: "Bataille navale d[an]s la mer du nord, entre les Anglais et les Allemands-quelle horreur!-Sans résultat autre que abominations sans nombre, souffrances-ah! c'est trop pénible."
19. "En raison des circonstances et du deuil des familles, la cérémonie a été célébrée dans la plus stricte intimité et il n'a pas été envoyée des lettres de mariage."
20. "Suis gaie aujourd'hui et pourtant souffre beaucoup intestine-Je reste couchée."
21. "Je me sens si lasse que je n'arrive pas à me lever-je tricote, couchée-je lis un peu-quand, donc, serais-je enfin guérie-je ne puis presque pas manger, tant j'ai mal"; "des frissons me parcourent- mon sang bond et saute d[an]s mes veines comme une motocyclette qui se met en marche."
22. An obituary was published in the Asheville Citizen-Times on 29 March 2009: http://obituaries .citizen-times.com/obituaries/obit.php?id=61743 (accessed 22 February 2012).
23. D'un jardin clair and D'un vieux jardin both were first published 1918 in Paris by Société Anonyme des Éditions Ricordi; both were republished by G. Schirmer in 1979, along with a piano version of Cortège, as Trois morceaux pour piano. Thème et variations was published in an edition by Selma Epstein, Anthology of Piano Music by Women Composers (Dickeyville, MD: Chromattica USA Press, 1994); and in a very poorly presented edition by Benjamin-Gunnar Cohrs (Cologne: P. J. Tonger, 2004).
24. First published as Nocturne pour violon ou flûte et piano (Paris: Ricordi, 1918; various later editions). The Debussy allusion also appears in the song Le retour (1912), her Prix de Rome-winning cantata Faust et Hélène (1913), and a piece for chorus and piano composed in the same year, Soir sur la plaine. See Caroline Potter, Nadia and Lili Boulanger (Aldershot, Eng.: Ashgate, 2006), for further detail.
Caroline Potter is reader in music at Kingston University, London, U.K. The author is extremely grateful to Vance Brown and Paul Sholar (Asheville, North Carolina) for their assistance in preparing this article, and to Robert Orledge, Roy Howat, and David Wordsworth for invaluable advice.
Appendix: SELECTED WORKS OF LILI BOULANGER:
1910 Attente: song, voice and piano (text by Maurice Maeterlinck)
1911 Nocturne [originally Pièce courte]: flute or violin and piano
Les sirènes: mezzo-soprano, female choir, and piano or orchestra (text by Charles Grandmougin)
Reflets: song, voice and piano (text by Maeterlinck)
Renouveau: mixed chorus, 4 solo voices, piano or orchestra (text by Armand Silvestre)
1912 Hymne au soleil: chorus, contralto solo, piano or orchestra (text by Casimir Delavigne)
Le retour: song, voice and piano (text by Georges Delaquys)
Pour les funérailles d'un soldat: baritone, mixed chorus, piano or orchestra (text by Alfred Musset)
1913 Faust et Hélène: cantata, tenor, baritone, mezzo-soprano, orchestra (text by Eugène Adenis). Prix de Rome winner
Soir sur la plaine: mixed chorus, soprano, tenor, and baritone solos, piano or orchestra (text by Albert Samain)
1913-14 Clairières dans le ciel: cycle of 13 songs, tenor and piano (text by Francis Jammes; orchestrated 1916)
1914 Thème et variations: piano
Cortège: piano solo, or violin and piano
D'un jardin clair and D'un vieux jardin: piano
1914-17 Psalm 130 "Du fond de l'abÎme": alto, tenor, mixed chorus, organ, orchestra
Vieille prière bouddhique: tenor, chorus, orchestra
1916 Psalm 24 "La terre appartient à l'Éternel": tenor, mixed chorus, organ, orchestra
Psalm 129 "Ils m'ont assez opprimé": baritone, mixed chorus, orchestra
Dans l'immense tristesse: song, voice and piano (text by Bertha Galéron de Calonne)
Marche gaie: originally written for small orchestra (paired with the lost Marche funèbre)
1917-18 D'un matin de printemps: violin or flute and piano; D'un soir triste: cello and piano, or piano trio. Both these works also exist in orchestral versions
1918 Pie Jesu: soprano, string quartet, harp, organ (dictated to her sister Nadia)
Other missing works: two Pièces for oboe and for trumpet (1914-15); Poème symphonique, orchestra (1915-16); Sicilienne, small orchestra (1916); a Sonata for violin and piano (1912-16; a small number of sketches survive). Boulanger began work on an opera, La princesse Maleine (sketches survive from 1916-18). Most works written as student exercises have been omitted from this list.