Author: Galles, Duane L C M
Date published: October 1, 2012
Journal code: SCMS
Today corporations are some of the greatest patrons of music. Most American symphony orchestras have and avidly seek a coterie of corporate sponsors and for decades opera lovers across America enjoyed broadcasts of the Metropolitan Opera of New York, thanks to the generosity of the Texaco, and later Mobil Oil Company, and later still Toll Brothers. Patronage in the Middle Ages and Early Modern period was not all that different.
THE RISE OF CHRISTIAN CHIVALRY
In the late Middle Ages and Renaissance there were also great corporate patrons of music. Among the great corporations then, besides the monasteries and cathedral and collegiate chapters of canons which were the conservatories of Europe until the French Revolution, were the military religious orders and the chivalric orders of knighthood. Knighthood in the second Christian millennium had ceased to be merely an occupation or social rank. Instead, it now became something of a spiritual vocation. The Gregorian reformers early in the second Christian millennium saw it as among the "variety of gifts" about which St. Paul spoke in I Cor. 12:4-11: "There are different gifts but the same spirit; there are different ministries but the same Lord; there are different works but the same God who accomplishes all of them in everyone." Thus the Romano-German Pontifical of the tenth century included a blessing for the arms of soldiers, in which the church prayed that those military weapons "might be a defense and protection of churches, widows, orphans, and all servants of God." A century later the pontifical would actually include a liturgical rite for the initiation of a man to knighthood, thereby recognizing that what had been mere employment was now seen as a vocation. Some medieval theologians would even call initiation to knighthood a sacrament, with baptism, the gateway to the other sacraments, as a prerequisite for knighthood, and they would see knighthood and priesthood as coordinate institutes of Christian society. In the days before Peter Lombard when the church defined the sacraments as seven in number, a number of rites, which we would today call sacramentals, were then called sacraments. Not surprisingly, there are many medieval references to one being "ordained a knight." The tap on the shoulder that was part of the dubbing ceremony was seen as an implicit oath by those accepting it.
Many medieval theologians from the time of St. Thomas Aquinas on saw the matter of the sacrament of holy orders in the traditio instrumentorum, the delivery at ordination of the paten and chalice, the instruments of priestly sacrifice. By analogy, knighthood was seen as conferred by the traditio instrumentorum, the girding on of the sword and the delivery of the cross, the instruments of knightly service. A further vestiary analogy might be mentioned. The priest is clothed with a stole and the knight with the mantle, both to remind the wearer of the sweet yoke of his vocation. Finally, both the rite of ordaining a priest and that for making a knight concluded with a kiss of peace. Thus, Guibert of Nogent in 1110 in his Gesta Dei per francos concluded:
In our time God has instituted holy warfare so that the knightly order ordo equestris) . . . [are] no longer . . . obliged to leave the world and chose a monastic way of life, as used to be the case, or some religious profession, but in their accustomed liberty and habit, by performing their own office in some measure achieve the grace of God.1
Christianity's link with knighthood became even closer with the rise of the military religious orders. This was a new species of religious, who now were both monks and knights. St. Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), Doctor of the Church, in his tract De laude novae militiae, would praise this new species of religious and become their great propagandizer and so arose the Knights Templar, followed by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (now often called the Knights of Malta), the Knights of St. Mary the German (later called the Teutonic Knights), and the Knights of St. Lazarus. There were also a number of Iberian military religious orders, including those of Santiago, Calatrava, Alcantara, and Aviz.2
Nor was this lofty view of knighthood merely a transient and medieval view. A great number of chivalric orders were created to promote the ideals of Christian knighthood. Even when these were secular (Europeans would say lay) orders created by princes, such orders had, at least initially, a Christian ethos and core spirituality. And often they were created by papal bull or at least approved by apostolic decree. Perhaps the most illustrious was the Order of the Golden Fleece, created by Duke Philip the Fair of Burgundy in 1430. The great English Order of the Garter is older and dates to 1348. The Savoy Order of the Annunciation followed in 1362. The French Order of St. Michael was created by King Louis XI in 1469.
Even with the waning of the Middle Ages, Europe continued to see the advent of new chivalric orders. In 1562 Medici Duke Cosimo established at Pisa the Order of St. Stephen as a naval force on the model of the Knights of St. John, who had by now retreated from the Holy Land and after 1523 from Rhodes to their islands of Malta where they became a naval bulwark against the Turkish threat to Christendom. About the same time the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George, whilst claiming fourth-century origins and with members of the Angelo family (claiming Byzantine imperial ancestry) at its head, was taking shape. In 1697 the childless Gian Andrea Angelo transferred the grand magistracy to the Farnese Dukes of Parma from whom it passed to the Bourbons of Parma and later of the Two Sicilies.
Meanwhile, the great military religious order, the Knights Templar, had in 1307 been suppressed by Pope Clement V. Their property and members in Portugal, however, Pope John XXII in 1319 transformed into the Order of Christ, which still survives today in Portuguese and papal divisions. The Templar property and membership in Aragon became the Order of Montesa. The Order of St. Lazarus, originally formed by military religious knights who had contracted leprosy, eventually had a fate not unlike that of the Knights Templars. Its properties in France were united to a new Order of Mount Carmel, created in 1607 by King Henry IV, and its Italian possessions were, in 1573, transferred by Pope Gregory XIII to the Order of St. Maurice, created in 1434 by Savoy Duke Amadeus VIII, which thereupon became the Order of St. Maurice and Lazarus.
The Reformation caused a split in the Order of St. John. The (Protestant) Prussian Johanniter Order resulted, and in the nineteenth century the British Venerable Order of St. John would come into being with a royal charter in 1888 and the British monarch as Sovereign Head and a Prince of Great Britain as Grand Prior. Meanwhile, the Catholic Knights were expelled from Rhodes by the Turks in 1523 and took refuge on their Maltese fastness, until dislodged from there by the French in 1798. Eventually, they settled on the Aventine Hill in Rome where they remain today as a quasi-state. The Teutonic Order likewise split into Protestant and Catholic parts, with the Catholic part surviving at Mergentheim in southern Germany under a Grand Master now a prince of the Holy Roman and later Austrian Empire until the demise of the Danubian Monarchy in World War I. In 1929 Pope Pius XI transformed the Catholic Teutonic Order into a mendicant order of priests and sisters and it ceased to be a military religious order.3
Pilgrims to the Holy Land meanwhile continued after the crusades, organized for their protection, had ceased. Those pilgrims to the Holy Land of knightly rank and pious disposition were often wont to be dubbed a knight in the Basilica of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem, the more consciously to embrace the life of Christian service they saw knighthood to be. The Franciscans, who had come to the Holy Land in 1219, remained in the Holy Land after the Muslims had re-taken it, and oversaw this development, their custos being given by the pope the faculty to confer knighthood. Recalling this chivalric tradition, when he re-created the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem in 1847, Pope Pius IX also erected as a chivalric order for its support the Sacred Military Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem Since 1931 this Order has been known as the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem.4
At the same time the church continued to see the initiation to knighthood as a sacramental, and a rite for its inauguration remained in the Roman Pontifical. Thus, when Pope Clement XIV in 1770 created Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) a Knight of the Golden Spur, his decree of appointment not only created Mozart a knight but first, since it conferred a sacramental for the valid reception of which the recipient had to be in the state of grace, it absolved him from any sentence of excommunication, suspension, or interdict or other censures and penalties of the church imposed a iure or ab homine for whatever occasion or cause.5 In this light the patronage of music by orders of knighthood takes on a special light.
THE TRADITION OF CHIVALRIC MUSICAL PATRONAGE
The Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece not only adorned the arms of many an armiger sans peur et sans reproche (without fear and without reproach), it was a juridical person with an extensive corporate life which has been described as "a major corporate patron of music." Established in 1430 by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, it came by inheritance to the Habsburgs and so would later have Spanish and Austrian branches. It had fifty-one members by 1517 and had developed a vibrant corporate life, which included several functions each year at which there was polyphonic music. Its Sainte Chapelle in Dijon had, besides canons, a choirmaster and four choirboys. The order held chapter meetings on St. Andrew's Day (November 30) and in May and these came to be elaborate three-day affairs with First Vespers, a Mass, a banquet, the Office of the Dead, a Requiem, and a Mass of the Blessed Virgin. Later a votive Mass of the Holy Ghost was added and these Masses were usually celebrated pontifically and therefore solemnly with music.
This elaborate liturgical cycle provided many opportunities for polyphonic music and this seems to have developed progressively and more solemnly. At the May 1478 meeting in Bruges, the Mass of St. Andrew was celebrated, we are told, very solemnly with organs, discant, and jubilation. Three years later in 's-Hertogenbosch we read of the order's triduum, beginning with First Vespers and a Mass of St. Andrew with discant and organ, and later that year on St. Andrew's Day the Order met at St. Gudula Church, Brussels, where the Mass of St. Andrew was discanted by the chaplains of its sovereign, Maximilian of Austria (1459-1519) who, in 1477, had married the Burgundian heiress, Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold and granddaughter of the order's founder, Philip the Good.
A decade earlier in 1471 at a Valenciennes meeting of the order there was mention of a procession before the Mass of St. Andrew led by heralds, and then came trumpets and clarions playing antiphonally and followed by the Duke Charles the Bold. In 1555 this procession was very grand. It began with sixteen trumpeters on horseback followed by two groups of heralds, eight dressed in black with gold banderoles bearing the black imperial eagle and eight dressed in tabards of yellow velours with red and yellow borders and with banderoles bearing the arms of the King of Spain. Later that year the Habsburg Emperor Charles V, who was also King Carlos I of Spain, would abdicate and retire to a monastery, leaving his imperial Austrian and Hungarian realms to his brother Ferdinand, and his Spanish and Burgundian realms to his son Philip. In Madrid in 1625 this Order of the Golden Fleece procession included, besides trumpets, nakers and hautbois.
The texts employed at the Mass of the Blessed Virgin were proper to the order and were the work of Bishop Guillaume Fillastre (d. 1473) of Toul, second chancellor of the order. It seems many texts were modeled on the Dominican propers for the Feast of St. Dominic, often using texts recalling the fleece of Gideon, which was seen as a symbol of the Immaculate Conception. The investiture of new knights took place at the Mass of the Holy Spirit, and it seems the offertory procession at this Mass was celebrated very solemnly with trumpets.
While it may have even commissioned works by the Netherlandish composers Alexander Agricola (1445-1506) and Josquin des Prez (e. 1450-1521), for its Requiem Mass the order seems to have adopted the Requiem of Guillaume Dufay (1397-1474) as quasi-official music. When the De profundis was chanted at the end of the offertory, the knights processed carrying lighted tapers. Dufay was a canon of Cambrai Cathedral and his Requiem Mass, now lost, was to be sung in the Chapel of St. Etienne there on the day following his funeral by a dozen of the best singers chosen from among the vicars-choral, according to his will, dated 8 July, 1474. This appears to be the first mention in musical history of an entirely polyphonic Requiem Mass.6
The Sovereign Military Order of Malta, albeit a military religious order also known as the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, the professed members of which are subject to a solemn vow of poverty, proved itself corporately a notable musical patron. Having been expelled from Rhodes by the Turks in 1523, the Knights transferred themselves to Malta and transformed the cultural life of Malta by introducing customs and habits from around Europe by members of a class used to a rich cultural life. While the cathedral at Mdina enjoyed a notable musical tradition, the order's musical establishment in its conventual church in Valetta employed fine musical talent until its end with the French invasion of 1798. Musicians were a regular sight at the court of His Eminent Highness, the Grand Master, to lend grandeur to the rich spectacle of it.
Eminently decent corporate provision was made for music in Malta by the order. The Italian Langue had plays in their auberge as early as 1631 and at least during the eighteenth century the order's grand masters staged an opera annually on Calendimaggio (April 30), and in 1732 the Grand Master, Dom Antonio Manoel de Vilhena (1663-1736), built and supported the six-hundred and twenty-three seat, horseshoe-shaped Teatro Pubblico ad honestam populi oblectationem, for the honest recreation of the people. The theater was inaugurated with a performance of Scipione Mafei's classic tragedy, Merope, and it was home to French comedy and Italian opera until the French Revolutionaries evicted the Knights from their island home in 1798. Renamed the Manoel Theater in 1873, it survived the extensive Axis bombing during World War II and is the oldest European theater still functioning in its original structure. Since 1960 it has been known as the National Theater and it is the home of Malta's National Orchestra.7
A number of distinguished musicians have been associated with the order. Filisteo Scaramuccia was a native of Capua and the composer of a book of madrigals, published in Venice in 1580, which identifies him as a Knight of Malta and is dedicated to Jean de la Cassière, Grand Master of the Order from 1572 to 1581. Sebastián Raval (c. 1550-1604) was a Spanish composer who in 1592 published a book of motets in Rome. He transferred from the Capuchins to the Order of Malta and he was maestro di cappella at Urbino and later at Palermo. Filippo Acciaiuoli (1637-1700) was trained in music in his native Florence before becoming a Knight of Malta in 1666 and serving in at least four caravans. He went to Rome upon the election of the librettist Pope Clement IX (Rospigliosi) and for the next three decades was the city's impresario, masterminding spectacular opera in and around Rome, including the Tordinona Theater. Benedetto Pamphili (1653-1730) was a lavish music patron and librettist, thanks in part to his revenues as Grand Prior of the Roman Grand Priory of the Knights of Malta. He was also a cardinal. Among the many musicians he patronized were Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) and George Frideric Handel (1680-1759).
Filippo Pizzuto (1704-aft. 1740) was a talented musician trained in the conventual church of the Order in Valetta and in the Naples conservatory under Porpora. He composed at least three Calendimaggio cantatas, but left Malta in 1740 and little thereafter is known of him. Angelo Nani (1751-1844) was a violinist and impresario from a notable Venetian family, but his marriage in 1768 ended possibilities for advancement in the order. He was nevertheless conductor and impresario of the Manoel Theater orchestra, and or his twelve children, Emmanuele, Agostino, and Vincenzo were violinists and composers. Nicolo Isouard (1773-1818) was a Maltese-born composer who enjoyed the order's patronage. He studied in Paris and his first opera, L'Avviso ai Maritati, premiered in Florence in 1794. The following year the Grand Master of Malta commissioned him to write a Mass. After the French invasion he moved to Paris where he worked in association of Cherubini, Kreutzer, and Boieledieu writing comic opera including his very successful Cendrillon in 1810.
In more recent times the Order of Malta, which, besides being a religious order in canon law, ranks as a subject of international law and so is a quasi-state, continues its patronage of music. It has its own order of merit, and it conferred its Cross of Merit on Justine Ward (1879-1975) for her extensive efforts on behalf of Gregorian chant. It gave the same honor to the Australian conductor Richard Divall (1945- ), who is also a Knight of Justice of Malta, for his work in Australian colonial music and early opera. The Canadian violinist, conductor and composer Alexander Brott (1915-2005), who trained at the McGill Conservatorium and the Juilliard School, was a Knight of Malta as well as member of the Order of Canada and a Chevalier de l'Ordre National du Québec. Carmelo Pace (1906-1993) was a Maltese composer and teacher born in Valletta, the son of Anthony Pace and his wife Maria Carmela Ciappara. He wrote many suites for piano, violin, and violoncello, cantatas, concertos, an oratorio, two ballets, four operas, and a Stabat Mater. In 1964 he was made a Knight of Malta and in 1992 an officer of the National Order of Merit of Malta.
The Military and Naval Order of St. Stephen was established in 1560 by the Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany and was patterned on the Order of Malta, with vows of obedience, charity, and conjugal chastity. Located at Pisa, it maintained a small naval force to repel Turkish corsairs. Its badge is a red Maltese cross with gold fleurs de lis between the arms. It was also a notable music patron. Bernardo Giacomini (1532-1562) was a Florentine gentleman and Knight of St. Stephen. He published in 1563 at book of madrigals, which celebrated the marriage of Grand Duke Cosimo's daughter Isabella to Duke Paolo Orsini. Ferdinando Saracinello was a poet and librettist and privy chamberlain to the Medici. He had an important part in court entertainments in Florence even participating as a dancer. He died in 1640, having been Grand Chancellor of the Order of St. Stephen. Giovanni del Turco (1577-1647) was both composer and Knight of St. Stephen. His first book of madrigals was published in 1602 and in 1614 was appointed superintendent to Grand Duke Cosimo II. Azzolino Bernardino della Ciaia (1671-1755) was a Knight of St. Stephen and a composer. He is especially known for his organ works and he oversaw the building of an enormous four-manual organ with 3,500 pipes for the order in Pisa. It was first played at the funeral of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737, last of the Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany. Giovanni Bettini was a seventeenth-century Italian organist and composer, who from 1618 to 1624 was organist to the Order of St. Stephen at Pisa. His teacher Antonio Brunelli (1577-1630) was also an organist and composer who had received his musical education in Rome under Nanino. In 1613 he became maestro di cappella of the conventual church of the Knights of St. Stephen at Pisa. He wrote sacred music and songs and dances. Remigio Cesti (c. 1635-c. 1717) was a composer and Dominican. In 1663 he became organist to the Knights of St. Stephen at Pisa and two years later his opera Il principe generoso premiered in Innsbruck.
The Teutonic Order of St. Mary of Jerusalem was established as a military religious order in the Holy Land in the early twelfth century and bore a black cross on a silver field. After the fall of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, it acquired a new mission in Prussia and Lithuania centered round its great casde at Marienburg. To this Baltic region they brought German staff notation and the peculiar liturgical use of the Dominicans, which they had adopted. At the Reformation the Grand Master embraced the Reform and the Order split into Protestant and Catholic branches with the latter centered around the Hoch- und Deutsch Meister at Mergentheim, who was made a Prince of the Empire. It survived there as an independent South German principality until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
At Mergentheim it patronized a number of musicians. One may mention Augustin Plattner who flourished in the early seventeenth century. The order financed his early musical education and from 1621 he worked as organist to the order at Mergentheim. His oeuvre includes some eight Masses for double choir in the Venetian manner, one Missapro defunctis, and six parody Masses. Ignaz Franz Xaver Kürzinger (1724-1797) was the son of the principal town musician in Rosenheim, Bavaria, who studied composition under Carl Heinrich Graun (1703-1759) in Berlin and later visited Italy before entering the service of the order at Mergentheim where in 1751 he became Kapellmeister. He remained at Mergentheim as such for a decade before entering the service of the Prince-Bishop of Würtzburg, where one of his students was George Joseph Vogler (1749-1814). Most of his music was destroyed during World War II, but his Missa solemnis in D and his VIII Symphoniae solemniores for orchestra survive. Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) made an appearance at Mergentheim with the orchestra of the Prince-Archbishop of Cologne and a letter published in Musikalische Correspondenz in 1791 extolled his piano playing and compared it with that of the celebrated Abbé Vogler: "Beethoven, in addition to the execution, his greater clarity and weight of idea, and more expression-in short, he appeals more to the heart."8 An actual musical member of the Order was Count Ferdinand Ernst Joseph Gabriel von Waldstein und Wartenberg zu Dux (1762-1823), who was the son of Count Philibert Waldstein and his wife Princess Maria Anna Theresia von Liechtenstein. After the requisite year as a novice, he was received into the order in 1788. In Bonn he became acquainted with Beethoven to whom he is said to have been an invaluable patron. He commissioned the Ritterballett, Beethoven's first purely orchestral score, and in 1805 he became the dedicatee of Beethoven's Sonata in C, Op. 53, which has borne his name ever since.9 Waldstein was himself a gifted improviser in the piano and he left a Symphony in D, three solo cantatas, and two songs. From 1795 to 1807 Waldstein served in the British army and in 1812 he resigned from the order and married Countess Isabella Rzewuska.
The first military religious order was the Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, which became one of the richest medieval corporations. With its wealth and great array of commanderies across Christendom, it was well placed to become an international banker: Funds could be securely deposited with one location and withdrawn at another hundreds of miles away. It was precisely this wealth that attracted the avarice of King Philip Augustus of France and led to its destruction. Its Temple Church, consecrated in 1185 by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, was its headquarters in England but, after the dissolution of the Order in 1307 by Pope Clement V, the property was given over to the Order of St. John who leased it and its other buildings as the home of two groups of lawyers which later came to be the inns of court, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. These were two of England's four inns of court, the only places where English common law was formally studied until Sir William Blackstone was appointed Vinerian Professor of English Law at Oxford in 1742. To this day the four Inns of Court (Lincoln, Gray, Inner Temple, Middle Temple) remain for English barristers the gateway to their profession.
Temple Church, built in 1185, serves as the private chapel of Inner Temple and Middle Temple. When it was restored in 1841, it was decided to introduce there the sung service with surpliced choir found at English cathedrals, and Edward John Hopkins (1818-1901) was appointed organist and choirmaster of its "double choir" of six choir boys and three gentlemen on each side of the choir. Hopkins was a member of a musical family and had been trained in the Chapel Royal and had a special gift for training choristers. Soon the music at Temple Church had an excellent reputation and became a model for many English parish churches. Hopkins was also keen to advance music as a profession, and he was one of the founders of the College of Organists in 1869. In 1882 he was awarded a Lambeth musical doctorate. He retired in 1898 and was succeeded by Henry Walford Davies (1869-1941) who had been trained as a chorister at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, under Sir George Elvey (1816-1893) and later at the Royal College of Music under Sir Walter Parratt (1841-1924). Davies improved the quality of the music at Temple Church and by 1908 it is said to have reached a peak of perfection. In 1917 he was appointed director of music to the Royal Air Force and two years later he was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire. In 1919 he took up the position of director of music at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, retaining the oversight of music at Temple Church until 1924. He succeeded Parratt as organist at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, in 1927 and five years later became Master of the King's Music upon the death of Sir Edward Elgar. Knighted in 1922, he was later made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. He was succeeded at Temple Church by George Thomas Thalben-Ball (1896-1987), an Australian who had studied at the Royal College of Music under Parratt and at the age of sixteen had become a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists. Under his leadership, the Temple musicians ventured into recording, and during World War II he would work for the BBC. Temple choir's 1927 recording of Mendelssohn's Hear my Prayer would become world-famous. He was much loved by the boys and in 1935 the Archbishop of Canterbury conferred on him the Lambeth degree of Doctor of Music. In 1982, upon his retirement, he received the honor of knighthood. His successor, John Antony Birch, who presided over music at Temple Church for a decade and a half, likewise was honored with a Lambeth doctorate of music.10
The Most Noble Order of the Garter lamentably seems to have had little use of music in its ceremonial until the last century. After a knight had been appointed and invested with the insignia of the order, it was required by the statutes that he be introduced to his stall in St. Georges Chapel, Windsor. But this ceremony was often dispensed and after 1805 it ceased to be held. It was revived in 1911 by King George V for the installation of the Prince of Wales. The knights assembled in the Waterloo Chamber and processed to the chapel where they were met by the canons, minor canons, lay clerks, and choristers of the College of St. George who sang Psalm 95, Venite, exultemus, as the company entered the nave. Three psalms (15, 20, and 145) and a lesson from Ephesians followed. Then came the Apostles Creed, the collects (including that of St. George) and responses. The service was revived in 1948 for the six hundredth anniversary of the order when the Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh were installed. The program now called for an anthem, Be Strong in the Lord, composed by the organist Dr. William Harris after the installations, and it ended with a Te Deum by Vaughan Williams, OM (1872-1958). A service has consistently been held (usually on the Monday before the opening of the Royal Ascot Race-and usually the third week in June) each year since 1954 (when Sir Winston Churchill was installed), and the Te Deum performed has been to settings by Benjamin Britten, Sidney Campbell, Edward Elgar, Charles Villiers Stanford, Herbert Sumison, and William Walton.11
MILITARY RELIGIOUS AND CHIVALRIC ORDERS IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY
The "war to end all wars" and "to make the world safe for democracy" ended with Woodrow Wilson's abortive effort to bring the United States into the League of Nations and into the counsels of Europe. The notional view is that the United States then went into isolation instead. But, as aficionados of George Gershwin or Cole Porter or Aaron Copeland (as well as James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, e. e. cummings, and Gertrude Stein) could attest, the United States kept its distance from the League, embarked on a quixotic quest for national sobriety, and enacted a Quota Act designed to keep out undesirable immigrants from southern and eastern Europe (known colloquially as "The Garlickers"), Asia, Africa, and South America, Americans themselves in search of culture continued to flock to Paris, to Germany, and to Italy.
The War had also introduced many Americans to the world of honors, orders, and decorations.12 Many Americans were decorated in the course of the war. Col. Edgar Erskine Hume (1889-1952) was one of these, and in 1921 he matriculated in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland the arms of his ancestor George Hume of Wedderburn, Berwickshire, who in 1721 had emigrated to Culpeper County, Virginia (NERI 4). The Colonel thus entered the noblesse of Scotland. During the War this "gentleman by Act of Congress" had been an officer in the United States Army Medical Corps and he has been called the most decorated soldier in United States history. A graduate in medicine of Johns Hopkins University, he ended his army career as a major general.13
Access to heralds across the water was considerably facilitated for Americans on December 8, 1919 when an honorary grant of arms was made by the English Kings of Arms directly to an American citizen, George Gordon King of New York City. Since then, there have been many of these honorary grants of arms. In 1933, for example, Myron C. Taylor (1874-1959), lawyer, financier, and later personal representative of President Roosevelt to Pope Pius XII, received an honorary grant, and in 1955 Winthrop Williams Aldrich (1885-1974), a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire, financier and sometime American ambassador to Britain, as well received an honorary grant of arms. Aldrich was the son of the very powerful Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (1841-1915) of Rhode Island and he was the brother-in-law of Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908-1979), forty-first Vice President of the United States. In 1957 the descendants of the noted Minneapolis merchant miller and millionaire, George Alfred Pillsbury (1816-1898) (NER547), also secured an honorary grant of arms from the College of Arms for him and his descendants.
In 1920 Ulster King of Arms also confirmed arms to Patrick Joseph Toomey (1850-1922) (NER667), of Bouree and Knockarny, Ireland, and later of St. Louis, Missouri. His son, Major Thomas Noxon Toomey, a St. Louis surgeon and professor of dermatology at Washington University in St. Louis, in 1923 married Johanna, daughter of Frederick Philip Kenkel (1863-1952) and his wife Eleanore von Kamptz. Kenkel was the son of Henry Kenkel and Albertine von Wallerstein of Chicago and a distinguished sociologist and director of the St. Louis German Catholic charity, the Centralverein. Kenkel was made a Knight of St. Gregory in 1914 and a Knight of the Holy Sepulcher in 1926.14
Other Catholics were amassing honors. The financier and chairman of New York Edison Company, Nicholas Frederic Brady (1878-1930), whom Time Magazine called "the greatest Catholic layman," in 1918 was made a papal privy chamberlain of cape and sword and in 1928 was created a knight grand cross of the Order of St. Gregory, having two years earlier been made a papal duke. His wife, née Genevieve Garvan, was a Lady of the Holy Sepulcher and was created a papal duchess in her own right. Edward L. Hearn (1866-1945), the fifth Supreme Knight of the Knights of Columbus, likewise in 1922 became a papal chamberlain and in 1926 was made a papal count; he was also a Knight of the Holy Sepulcher. James Joseph Phelan (1871-1934) of Boston in 1888 joined the stock brokerage firm of Hornblower and Weeks, and in 1900 he was made a partner. He is said to have been the first Knight of Malta in the United States and was later given its Grand Cross. He was also created a Knight Commander of the Pian Order. Gerald Mark Borden, grandson of the founder of Borden's Condensed Milk Company, was made a papal chamberlain in 1909 and later became a Knight of Malta. The Honorable Victor J. Dowling (1866-1934) was a New York City lawyer who served in the New York Assembly before becoming a trial court and later appellate court judge. He became a Knight of St. Gregory in 1916, a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1919, papal chamberlain in 1927 and a Knight of Malta in 1931, meanwhile also becoming a Knight of the Holy Sepulcher and the second Lieutenant of its Eastern Lieutenancy. Charles Adelbert Breitung (1872-1958) was a native of Toledo and an engineer by profession who made his fortune in the oil and gas field. He had served in the American Expeditionary Force in France and had won the Purple Heart. He also became a Knight Commander of the Holy Sepulcher, a Knight of Malta, and a papal privy chamberlain. Michael Francis Doyle was born in Philadelphia in 1875 and took a law degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1897 and was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar. He developed a specialty in international law and became special agent to the United States State Department and later the War Department and in 1929 became a Knight of the Holy Sepulcher and was later the third Lieutenant of its Eastern Lieutenancy. George MacDonald was an engineer by training who became a Knight of St. Gregory, a Knight Commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher, a Knight of Malta, a papal chamberlain, and a papal marquis.15 The world-famous Irish tenor John (Francis) McCormack (1884-1945), sang opera and popular music and was renowned for his flawless diction and superb breath control, which enabled him to sing sixty-four notes on one breath. He sang a number of roles with Dame Nellie Melba. His career was a huge financial success and he earned millions over his lifetime. He owned a country house, Moore Abbey, in county Kildare in addition to a Park Avenue apartment and a Hollywood mansion. He was appointed a Knight of the Holy Sepulcher and a Knight Commander of the Orders of St. Gregory and of St. Sylvester, a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and in 1928 he was created a papal count. From the College of Arms he got a grant of a coat of arms.16
Given the appetite American Catholics have shown for honors, it is not surprising that a number of chivalric orders arrived in the United States after World War I. In 1926, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta established its tenth National Association in New York (now known as the American Association), followed by a Westtern Association in California in 1952, and a Federal Association in Washington in 1974. By 1999 there were some 3,100 members in the three Associations in the United States. Today something under half of the Order's eleven thousand members worldwide are in the United States. The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher arrived in the United States in 1926 and in 1940 its Eastern and Western Lieutenancies in the United States were created. Today it has nine lieutenancies in the United States with some ten thousand of its twenty thousand worldwide members.
Other orders also expanded into the United States. A number of Americans were admitted to the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George, which in the 1980s organized a United States Delegation. Its first investiture was held in St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York on April 23, 1990; non-Catholics are admitted to the allied Royal Order of Francis I. The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus likewise arrived in New York about this time; non-Catholics are admitted to its allied Savoy Order of Merit. Meanwhile, the (British) Venerable Order of St. John had come to the United States and in 1958 an American Society was created in New York, which by the year 2000 included some one thousand of the Order's members. Most of these were Episcopalians, but the British St. John is ecumenical and includes some Catholics and Presbyterians as well amongst its thirty thousand members. The German Johanniterorden arrived in the United States in 1952 with a sub-commandery including perhaps some four dozen members.17
KNIGHTLY MUSICAL PATRONAGE IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY
Given the historic role of chivalric orders as patrons of music, one might ask what role any of these orders have today as patrons of music in the United States? One gains some sense of the place of sacred music in their corporate life from that useful volume by James-Charles Noonan, The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church.18 As he describes the investiture service of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher, it seems basically a low Mass with hymns of the 1950s dialogue Mass type with a couple of motets. There are no propers sung, except for the gradual and the alleluia. The Veni Creator appears to be sung in English. The music in the Order of Malta seems similar. In fine, the music would seem to be little different from that of the average American Catholic parish church. This is little beyond the typical Gebrauchsmusik (or utility music decried by Pope Benedict)-four hymns and a psalm plus an ICEL text-heard in most American Catholic churches today. All of this would seem to belie the great heritage of music patronage of chivalric orders.
As one surveys the investiture services of more recent times there is some suggestion of improvement. However, there are three national associations of the Order of Malta and nine lieutenancies of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher in the United States today. In the Northern Lieutenancy of Holy Sepulcher, which encompasses Colorado, the Dakotas, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, and Nebraska, investitures have run according to the following pattern. Typically the Lieutenancy would meet once a year in September near the feast of the Holy Cross (September 14) and the Seven Sorrows of Our Lady (September 15). Like the Golden Fleece, the event would be a triduum, commencing with a pilgrimage dinner Friday evening at which those who had gone on pilgrimage to the Holy Land might have a reunion and others learn of its prospective attractions. To this was added a vigil service which served as a portion of the Liturgy of the Hours and as an indoctrination session for candidates for investiture that year. Besides business sessions, on Saturday there would be a votive Mass of Our Lady, Queen of Palestine, which served both as a Mass of remembrance for members deceased during the last year and as a rite of promotions for benemerenti. On Sunday came the investiture service itself in the context of a Mass followed by a reception and banquet. All services were celebrated pontifically.
Looking at investiture service books of other Orders of the last decade, one sees mostly the same sort of music. The investiture of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of St. George, held April 28, 200 in St. Patricks Cathedral in New York with Theodore Cardinal McCarrick as celebrant, was in the context of a votive Mass of St. George (and, aptly, inasmuch as investiture is a sacramental, this rite followed the Credo at the end of the Liturgy of the Word) with the text of the Mass printed in Latin and English. The music included an entrance hymn to the tune "Regent Square," an offertory motet Ubi caritas by Duruflé, and at the conclusion the Royal Anthem of the Two Sicilies by Giovanni Paisiello and the Constantinian Order Anthem by Alfred Conforti. Another Constantinian Order investiture, held at the same location nine years later with Edward Cardinal Egan as celebrant, was similar, but the Kyrie and Agnus Dei were now in plainchant and in the ancient languages. The processional and recessional music were again English hymns, but the Two Sicilies Anthem now appeared as an organ piece during the offertory.
The 2003 investiture of the American Association of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, took place at the Cathedral of St. Patrick in New York in the context of a votive Mass of Our Lady of Philermos celebrated by Edward Cardinal Egan. There were processional and recessional English hymns and the Veni, Creator Spiritus, which preceded the investiture, was sung in English, but the Kyrie and Agnus Dei came from the Missa Brevis of Antonio Lotti (1661-1740), and there were motets-Sicut cervus by Palestrina at the offertory, Ave verum corpus by Guilmont, and Lord of all Power and Might by Chadwick during Communion. The prelude was Bach's Prelude and Fugue in D Major and postlude was the finale from Louis Vierne's Organ symphony I. Five years later at an investiture or the same, again in St. Patrick's and presided over by Cardinal Egan, tne service was quite similar, with the prelude being Bach's Prelude in D Major and the postlude his D Major Fugue. Now, however, the Veni Creator was sung by the Cathedral of St. Patrick Choir who also sang Mozart's Veni, Sancte Spiritus as an offertory motet and Sir Edward Elgar's Ave verum and Thomas Tallis' If Ye Love Me as communion motets. They also sang, as part of the concluding rite, the anthem of the Order, Ave, Crux Alba.
The investiture service in the United States of the Venerable Order, called a Service of Rededication, takes place in the context of a liturgy of the word with entrance hymn, collects, an Old Testament reading, a psalm, a Gospel reading, the Hymn of the Order of St. John, a sermon, an anthem, prayers ending with the Lord's Prayer and several collects, God Save the Queen and the American National Anthem, and the final blessing-with the investiture and promotions occurring after the sermon and anthem. The organ voluntaries during the opening and concluding processions, the English hymns, and the anthem before the sermon formed the chief musical pieces at the 2004 investiture at Grace Cathedral in San Francisco, the 2005 investiture at St. James' Church, Lenox Hill, New York City, and the 2010 service at the Cathedral of St. Philip, Atlanta.
In recent years there has seen an improvement in the music of the Northern Lieutenancy of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher from that described in earlier years by Noonan. At the 2009 meeting is St. Louis, the vigil service of the word, which was celebrated by Archbishop Joseph Naumann of Kansas City, concluded with an Ambrosian chant Te Deum and the veneration of a relic of the True Cross. During the latter members of the choir of the Cathedral-Basilica of St. Louis, led by Dr. John Romeri, sang three motets, Christus factus est by Felice Anerio (1560-1614), Nos autem also by Anerio, and Salvator mundi by Thomas Tallis. At the Memorial Mass celebrated by Archbishop Robert Carlson of St. Louis, the Kyrie and Agnus Dei were now chanted in Latin from the Missa de Angelis while the Sanctus was from Richard Proulx's Community Mass. The motet at the offertory of this votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin was aptly Anton Bruckner's Tota pulchra est, and at Communion time Owen Al's My Soul Rejoices was followed by Anna Jacob's Ave Maria. Jerusalem, My Happy Home, which has served as something of an order anthem, provided the recessional hymn. The investiture service, which was now placed before the Mass, began with the Veni Creator which was sung in English to an arrangement by Steven Janco and concluded with an arrangement by Richard Proulx of the Te Deum. At the offertory the Cathedral choir sang Sir Charles Hubert Hastings Parry's anthem, I Was Ghd, with Steven Janco's Draw Near and Malcolm Boyle's Thou, O God, Art Praised in Sion used as Communion motets. The Gloria came from a Mass commissioned in 1999 by the Archdiocese of St. Louis to be celebrated there by Pope John Paul II, the Sanctus from Richard Proulx's Mass for the City, and the Agnus Dei from David Clarke Isele's Holy Cross Mass.
The following year the investiture was held in Kansas City, with some events in Kansas and Missouri. The vigil service again concluded with an arrangement by Richard Proulx of the Te Deum and veneration of a relic of the True Cross during which musicians lead by Dr. Mario Pearson sang Biery's Elegy, Palestrina's O Crux Ave, Victoria's Jesu dulcis memoria, and Palestrina's Jesu, Rex admirabilis. At the Memorial Mass celebrated by His Eminence John Patrick Cardinal Foley, then Grand Master of the Order, Michael Podrebarac lead the choir in the Kyrie of Viadana's Missa l'hora passa, which was followed by the Sanctus from Richard Proulx's Deutsche Messe, and the Agnus Dei from the Missa cum jubilo (sometimes known as Mass IX and sung at Masses of Our Lady like this one). During the offertory the choir sang Gabriel Fauré's Pie Jesu and J. S. Bach's Jesu Joy of Man's Desiring and, during Communion, Michael Haydn's Adoro Te and a chant Ave verum corpus with a refrain "In Memory of You" by Alexander Peloquin. As a recessional after the promotions had been dispensed, the choir sang from Verdi's Nabucco, The Chorus of the Hebrews Slaves. The investiture service was celebrated by Cardinal Foley at the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Kansas City, Missouri, with musicians lead by Dr. Mario Pearson. The long procession of prelates and other clerics provided a place for much opening music which began by the Marche royale by Lully, a Sinfonia by Purcell, Praise the Lord with Drums and Cymbals by Elert, and Mozart's Laudate Dominum followed by Two Fanfares by Mawby. Then-somewhat anticlimactically-came the de rigeur English hymn, Hail, Redeemer King Divine. In a similar rhythm followed the Kyrie from Mozart's Missa brevis in C Minor and an English refrain Gloria by Peter Jones. The rite of investiture, which-laus Deo, inasmuch as it is a sacramental-followed the gospel and homily, was preceded by a Veni Creator by Victoria and concluded by an Ambrosian chant Te Deum arranged by Dr. Pearson. The Agnus Dei was again from the Mozart Mass. The offertory motet was an arrangement by Dr. Pearson of the "Prayer of St. Francis" and at Communion time there were the motets Cantique de Jean Racine by Fauré, Os justi by Bruckner, Take and Eat by Joncas, and Non nobis, Domine by Patrick Doyle. After recess with Lift High the Cross, we processed out in quick step with Rimsky-Korsakov's Procession of the Nobles.
In 2011 the Northern Lieutenancy met in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, in the beautifully redecorated Cathedral of St. Joseph. The vigil service again concluded with a Te Deum and veneration of the True Cross, but this time the hymn was chanted in Latin and-mirabile dictu-some Knights and Ladies of the Holy Sepulcher joined in the singing. Motets sung during the veneration included Crux fidelis by King John IV of Portugal (1603-1656), a contemporary setting by Aristotle Esguerra of Crucem tuam adoramus, Domine, and Palestrina's O Crux, ave. The Memorial Mass was celebrated by Bishop Paul Swain of Sioux Falls and began with a Salve Regina by Peter Cornet, Be Thou My Vision, and a trumpet voluntary by John Stanley followed by the plainchant Introit, Salve sancta parens and the Kyrie from the Missa de Angelis. The Sanctus and Agnus Dei were also taken from Mass VIII and the communion antiphon was also chanted! Our Order anthem, Jerusalem, My Happy Home, served in the office of an offertory motet, and during Communion we heard Prayer of St. Gregory by Alan Hovhaness and Pants angelicus by Palestrina. Promotions were followed by the well-known Trumpet Fanfare by Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1736) and Rise Up, O Men of God by William H. Walter. The investiture Mass was celebrated by His Beatitude Fouad Twal, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. It began with a Prelude, Fugue, and Chaconne by Buxtehude, Alleluia by Ralph Manuel Mozart's Laudate Dominum and (for the first time in my memory although these Masses are always celebrated pontifically) Ecce sarcrdos magnus by Maximilian Stadler. Then came the rite of investiture preceded by a plainchant Veni Creator and concluded by Flor Peters' Te Deum. The introit (albeit now long after the entrance) and communion verses were chanted, and the Kyrie, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei were taken from Mass VIII, but the Gloria was from the Congregational Mass of John Lee, and the Credo was merely recited. English hymns were sung at the offertory and at Communion and for recessionals came Eugene Gigout's Toccata in B Minor and Felix Mendelssohn's Holy, Holy, Holy.19
We see, then, that knighthood has a unique place in Christian spirituality and that the patronage of sacred music by chivalric orders has long had a distinguished place in the history of music. We see also that Christian knighthood has taken root in the United States and today is flourishing there. We see, as well, that the patronage of sacred music by chivalric orders appears to be somewhat on the rise in the United States.
WHAT IS TO BE DONE?
In article 112 of its Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Second Vatican Council declared that "the musical tradition of the universal church is a treasure of inestimable value," and that sacred music is "a necessary or integral part of the solemn liturgy." In Article 114 the council ordered that "the treasury of sacred music be preserved and cultivated with superlative care summa cura) and in article 116 that Gregorian chant, "the Roman Church's very own or proper music" should be given be given "principal place" principem locum), albeit "other kinds of sacred music, especially polyphony, are by no means excluded from liturgical celebrations." The council, also in article 120, sang a paean to the pipe organ, the traditional musical instrument of the Latin Church and said it was to be held in great esteem. It also ordered in article 36 that Latin be preserved in the Latin rites.
Two recent addresses, one by Pope Benedict XVI and the other by Monsignor Andrew Wadsworth, head of the International Commission on English in the Liturgy, have suggested areas in which liturgical music needs to improve. In his video message of June 17, 2012 to the Fiftieth International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, the Holy Father noted that the Second Vatican Council had launched the most extensive renewal ever known of the Roman Rite. And he declared a great deal has been achieved. But he also noted that there have also been "many misunderstandings and irregularities." One of these he cited was "the universal tendency to ignore sung propers and to substitute non-liturgical alternatives [hymns]." The Pope also noted "the appalling banality of much liturgical music and the lack of any true liturgical spirit in the use of music in the liturgy."
Even at the closing Mass at the Dublin Congress, Monsignor Wadsworth, in his plenary address on June 27, 2012 to the Church Music Association of America, complained that none of the antiphons of the propers were sung for the entrance, offertory, and communion processions. Gregorian chant was conspicuous by its absence. At the profession of faith after the celebrant had intoned Credo III the lectors read the Apostle's Creed with spoken paragraphs punctuated with a sung response "Credo, Amen"; Monsignor Wadsworth added that "this is not recognizably one of the modes for the Creed described in the GIRM article 48." Monsignor Wadsworth further noted, citing GIRM 41, that, "despite the international character of the occasion, the use of Latin in the people's sung parts was almost non-existent." He concluded that there was a need for "a greater willingness to heed Sacrosanctum Concilium rather than continue recourse to the rather nebulous concept of the 'spirit of the council' which generally attempts to legitimize liturgical abuses rather than correct them."20
The Order of Malta is a lay religious order of the Roman Church and at its core are publicly and perpetually professed knights of justice with solemn vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher is an ecclesiastical order of the Roman Church with a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church as its Grand Master and the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem as its Grand Prior. The Sacred Military and Constantinian Order of St. George and the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus continue to limit themselves to Catholics (albeit that other Christians are admitted to their associated Orders). It seems not inapt, therefore, that these orders might embrace, not only the venerable spirituality of Christian knighthood, but also the glorious history of musical patronage of the chivalric orders. And we pray that they will continue (and more sedulously) so to do!
1Jaroslav Pelikan, The Growth of Medieval Theology (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 213; Leon Gautier, La Chevalerie, ed. Jacques Levron (Paris: B. Arthuad, 1960), pp. 33, 36; Collin Morris, "Equestris Ordo: Chivalry as a Vocation in the Twelfth Century," in Derek Baker, ed., Religious Motivation: Biographical and Sociohgical Problems for the Church Historian: Papers Read at the Sixteenth Summer Meeting and the Seventeenth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society: Studies in Church History, 15 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1978), pp. 87-88; Pierre de Puniet, Le Pontifical Romain, 2 vols. (Louvain: Abbaye benedictine de Mont César, 1931), II, p. 220; Walter B. Clancy, The Rites and Ceremonies of Sacred Ordination (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1962), pp. 35, 38; only in 1947 did Pius XII define the essential matter of priestly orders as the (first) imposition of hands, not the traditio instrumentorum or the delivery of the paten and chalice, see ibid., 56.
2On the military religious orders, see Desmond Seward, The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders (London: Penguin Books, 1972).
3Desmond Seward, Italy's Knights of St. George: The Constantinian Order (Gerrards Cross, UK: Van Duren Publishers, 1986), pp. 29-51. On the history of these orders, see Peter Bander van Duren, Orders of Knighthood and of Merit: The Pontifical, Religious and Secularized Catholic-founded Orders, and Their Relationship to the Apostolic See (Gerrards Cross, UK: Colin Smythe, 1995), especially pp. 19-23.
4Michael H. Abraham D'Assemani, The Cross on the Sword: A History of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem (Chicago: Lithographed by Photopress, 1944), pp. 60-67.
5Otto Erich Deutsch, Mozart, a Documentary Biography (London: A. & C. Black, 1965), p. 123. The rite for the making of a knight was omitted from the Roman Pontifical when it was revised after Vatican II. This did not mean that it ceased to be a sacramental. The rite continues in the special rites of various orders. Similarly, norms on sacred music, minor basilicas, the Roman curia, and the pontifical household no longer appear in the Code of Canon Law. Nevertheless, special norms for these institutes still form part of the ius vigens.
6William Prizer, "Music and Ceremonial in the Low Countries: Philip the Fair and the Order of the Golden Fleece," Early Music History, 5 (1985), 114, 135; Barbara Haggh, "The Archives of the Order of the Golden Fleece and Music," Journal of the Royal Musical Association, 120 (1995), 1-21.
7 Vicki Ann Cremona, "Spectacle and 'Civil Liturgy' in Malta During the Time of the Knights of Malta," in Christopher Cairns, ed., The Renaissance Theater: Texts, Performance and Design (Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 1999), pp. 41, 53.; Claire-Eliane Engel, Histoire de L'Ordre de Malte (Genève: Nagel, 1968), p. 275.
8 Jeremy Siepmann, Beethoven: His Life and Music (Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks MediaFusion, 2006), p. 11.
9 Ibid., 186.
10 Stanley Sadie, ed., New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 2001) is the chief source of general music history information.
11 Peter J. Begent and Hubert Chesshyre, The Most Noble Order of the Garter: 650 Years (London: Spink, 1999), p. 299.
12 The war would also give rise to the creation of what is today the Institute of Heraldry, United States Army. During the First World War the United States Army expanded enormously, and to provide readable emblems for the many new army units and insignia office was established in 1919 in the War Department. During World War II, the volume of business increased greatly and in 1957 the agency was given a fixed statutory basis. The 1957 statute also expanded the scope of the agency's duties. It authorized the Secretary of the Army to furnish heraldic services, not only to armed forces units, but also to federal civilian agencies. 10 U.S.C. §4594 authorizes the Secretary of the Army to establish an authority to design flags, insignia, badges, medals, seals, decorations, and guidons, and further states that, "Upon request the Secretary of the Army may advise other departments and agencies of the United States on matters of heraldry"; Duane L.C.M. Galles, "American Heraldic Authority," Heraldry in Canada (Fall, 1986), 31. In 1960 the office acquired its present official name, "The Institute of Heraldry, United States Army." The Institute bears its own handsome coat of arms, viz., gold, a chevron Sable between three roses Gules.
13 Who Was Who in America (Chicago: Marquis-Who's Who, 1960), III, p. 428. Dr. Hume was author of Medical Work of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1940). The New England Historic Genealogical Society was established in 1845 and its Committee on Heraldry was formed in 1864. The New England Roll (=NER) is published periodically in the Society's New England Historic Genealogical Register (=NEHGR). NERI 4 in the text means that the coat of arms cited is number 14 on the New England Roll. The first part appeared in 1928.
14 A. C. Fox-Davies, Armorial Families; A Directory of Gentlemen of Coat-Armour (Rutland, Vermont: Tuttle Publishing Co., 1970), p. 1948; Who Was Who, III, 471. The Irish Genealogical Office, of which the Chief Herald is head, claims succession from Ulster King of Arms, an office established in 1552 by English King Edward VI, and so it is Ireland's oldest office of state. On April 1, 1943, the Irish Government changed the office's title to Genealogical Office, while the Chief Herald of Ireland replaced the King of Arms as the principal officeholder; Susan Hood, Royal Roots Republican Inheritance: The Survival of the Office of Arms (Dublin: The Woodfield Press, 2002), p. xiii.
15" Brady Estate," Time Magazine 15 (April 7 1930), 47; Who Was Who in America, 1897-1942 (Chicago: Marquis-Whos Who, 1958), pp. 129, 327, 966; Who Was Who, III, p. 100.
16 Raymond Foxall, John McCormack (New York, Alba House, 1964), p. 97.
17 Guy Stair Sainty, The Orders of St. John: The History, Structure, Membership and Modern Role of the Five Hospitaller Orders of St. John of Jerusalem (New York: The American Society of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 1991), pp. 46-47, 73, 94; Sainty, Orders of Knighthood and Merit, 46, 65, 83.
18 New York: Viking, 1996, pp. 168-177.
19 Information about the music at these services comes from the printed service books in the private collection of the author. [Editor's note: The music for the Masses and ceremonies at the Cathedral in Sioux Falls was planned by two members of the CMAA, Nathan and Lisa Knutson, in cooperation with cathedral Director of Music Ron Schallencamp.]
20 Andrew Wadsworth, "The Reform of the Roman Rite," Sacred Music, 139, no. 2 (Summer 2012), 29-35.
Duane L.C.M. Galles holds degrees from George Washington University (B.A.), William Mitchell College of Law (J.D.), University of Ottawa (Ph.D.) and Saint Paul University, Ottawa. (J.C.D.). He has a distinguished career as an attorney, counselor-at-law and canonist. Mr. Galles was called to the Bar of the Supreme Court of the State of Minnesota in 1977, and the Bar of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1981.